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Deep and Early Earth


Based on our collections, which cover a broad spectrum of natural history, we are interested in the fundamentals of System Earth, the environment of life. 

Studying volcanism and the impact of meteorites during the early history of the Earth, and researching processes in the deep Earth, is giving more profound insights into how our planet  was formed and how it developed. It may also inform us under which conditions early life could have started.

Our research is applied through the Netherlands Gemmological Laboratory (NGL), issuing reports on identification and origin of gemstones. We also use our vast knowledge on shells and formation of pearls to correctly identify rare, naturally formed pearls, as opposed to cultured or imitation pearls.

Leo Kriegsman and Hanco Zwaan

Cultured pearls and a naturally formed pearl, on the right. Photo by Hanco Zwaan.