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Leo Kriegsman

Dr. L. (Leo) M. Kriegsman, Researcher - Taxonomy and Systematics


Email: leo.kriegsman@naturalis.nl
Phone: +31 (0)71-5687654
Room number: C01.14, Darwinweg 2
“Knowing the history of our planet will help making reasonable predictions about our future.”


I studied at Utrecht University in The Netherlands and did part of my PhD (finished in 1993) at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. In the period 1995-1997 I held post-doctoral positions at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, and the Mining University Leoben, Austria. From June 1998 until 31 August 2002 (last year on sabbatical leave) I was a Professor of Geology and Mineralogy at Turku University, Finland, and until 2008 I maintained strong links to that department. At Naturalis I held various positions, in chronological order: curator of rocks, Head of Mineralogy, acting Director of Science, Head of Geology. In the period 2006-2011 I was deeply involved in international projects such as the Network of Excellence EDIT, FP6 programme SYNTHESYS-1, FP7 programme SYNTHESYS-2, running the Naturalis workpackages in those programmes and serving as a steering group member. In that period I was also involved in setting up Scientific Collections International, an international organisation that started under the umbrella of the OECD's Global Science Forum and is now independent. In the Netherlands, I was a steering group member of the National Programme on Plant Health, funded by FES (state gas revenues).

Since 2010 I am restarting my scientific career, doing fieldwork in Morocco, India and Sri Lanka.

(details follow soon)


Research interest

My main professional interests are in Structural Geology, Metamorphic Geology and Volcanology, Geochronology and Tectonics, with a strong focus on high-temperature processes, including partial melting, in the continental crust. Some key issues:

  • Tectonic settings of metamorphic belts, with emphasis on ultra-high-temperature (UHT) orogens
  • Global scale correlations of Precambrian orogenic belts
  • Developing and applying techniques to unravel pressure-temperature paths through mineral reactions and thermodynamics
  • Melt-present continental processes, including melt transfer, melt-assisted deformation, restite-melt interaction, and trace element redistributions at all scales of observation
  • Constraints from meteorites on the composition of and processes within the early Earth
  • Scales of natural hazards in space and time, notably explosive volcanism and meteorite impacts


Current research topics

1. UHT metamorphism and geodynamics of Pan-African Gondwana

This programme builds on work I did during my PhD (1998-1993), in the context of a large DFG programme (Mainz and other German universities) and related work I did in South India in the period 1999-2003, in collaboration with the University of Bonn (Germany) and the University of Trivandrum (India). Early papers in this programme were:

  • Structural evolution, tectonics and geodynamics of Sri Lanka and adjacent Gondwana fragments (Kriegsman, 1993, PhD thesis Utrecht; Kriegsman, 1994, PrecRes; Cenki & Kriegsman, PrecRes; Braun & Kriegsman, 2003, GeolSocSpecPubl 206).
  • improved P-T paths for Sri Lanka and South India, with implications for methodology (Kriegsman, 1996, CMP; Kriegsman & Schumacher, 1999, JPet; Bolder-Schrijver et al., 2000, JMG; Cenki et al. 2002, JMG)

In 2013 I have revisited South India and Sri Lanka, on travel grants by the Dr. Schürmann Foundation, picking up on issues not dealt with in the past. In particular, Hanco Zwaan and I are trying to link the formation of gem-quality sapphires, for which Sri Lanka is world famous, to the P-T path of the UHT sections of the Sri Lankan basement.

Since 2014, I am co-supervising Mr. Prasanna Dharmapriya, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) and together with him and his thesis supervisor, Dr. Sanjeewa Malaviarachchi, we are reassessing and improving the published P-T paths, and studying the relationship between melting and deformation. In addition, we aim to establish the relation between UHT granulites and upper mantle lithopsheric fragments, and to unravel the complex thust geometry in eastern Sri Lanka.

I am also writing a joint paper with Dr. Thierry Rakotonandrasana, who visited Naturalis in 2009, and his supervisor prof Arima (Kyoto, Japan), on UHT melting reactions in the basement of southern Madagascar.

2. Partial melting recorded in restitic xenoliths (“Under the volcano”)

Crustal melting can be studied along several lines of research: (i) petrological characterization of natural migmatite and granulite complexes (see projects 1-2); (ii) experimental simulation at varying physical and chemical parameters; (iii) numerical modelling; and (iv) the study of small fragments of crustal rocks undergoing partial melting that were rapidly brought to the Earth's surface by volcanic eruptions and now occur as xenoliths within lavas. In the latter field, I have earlier cooperated with university colleagues in Bonn (Germany) and Padova (Italy). A jointly supervised PhD project used abundant crustal xenoliths in dacitic lavas of the Neogene Volcanic Province (NVP) in southeastern Spain. Project aims were: 1) the definition of the various reactions of partial melting that produce garnet, cordierite, hercynite, orthopyroxene and ilmenite; 2) the geochemical characterization of minerals and melts; (3) evaluation of P-T conditions and mode of melting (e.g., equilibrium or disequilibrium). This project resulted in a series of papers, many of them with Antonio Alvarez-Valero (now Salamanca):

  • papers on the detailed P-T path recorded in the NVP xenoliths, with implications for local geodynamics (Alvarez-Valero et al., 2007, JMG; Alvarez-Valero & Kriegsman, 2007, Terra Nova; 2008, Lithos; 2010 Lithos)
  • comparing the textural evolution of xenoliths and anatectic migmatites (Braun & Kriegsman, 2001, PCE; Kriegsman & Alvarez-Valero, 2010, Lithos).
  • modelling flow patterns in magma chambers and linking them to the textural evolution of xenoliths (Alvarez-Valero et al., submitted for review)

In mid-2010 research shifted to the Moroccan part of the volcanic “hot line”, that starts from the active volcanic islands of Gran Canarias, transects Morocco, and ends in the NVP. We enlarged the team with colleagues from Fes University (drs. Dahire, Driouch, Moukadiri and Ntarmouchant) and Toulouse University (drs. Duchêne and Severac), with their MSc students, and involving two MSc students from Utrecht University). Within the next few years the project aims to build a model for the deep crust along the Moroccan part of the volcanic “hot line”. We expect the model and its underlying dataset to deepen the general understanding of patterns and processes in the deep continental crust and the relationship with upper crustal processes. We also hope to contribute to improving models of explosive volcanism.

3. Back reaction between restite and in situ crystallizing partial melt

Melt extraction from migmatites is generally incomplete, leading to back reaction between in situ crystallizing melt and the restite upon cooling. This process has significant implications for (i) geothermobarometry; (ii) the derivation of pressure-temperature (P-T) paths; (iii) liquid compositions deduced from leucosomes; (iv) the inferred tectonic settings; (v) geophysical models using petrological data as input. Early project results were:

  • a paper on the implications for P-T path calculations (Kriegsman and Hensen, 1998, Geology).
  • a European Exploratory Workshop on this topic, funded by the ESF, held in Turku, 23-25 August 1999.
  • a review paper on this process (Kriegsman, 2001, Lithos)
  • applications of these novel insights to granulites (Cenki et al., 2002, JMG;

A new actvity is to couple this process to examples of in situ (“arrested”) charnockitisation in S India and sri Lanka, where a melt phase seems to be involved as well. This topic will be tackled by Hans de Groot, under my supervision, using textural analysis, FEG-SEM-EDS element maps, FEG-EMP mineral analyses, and LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses.

4. other topics in metamorphic geology

Based on earlier work in Greenland, W Australia, central Australia, Sweden and Finland, I have many loose ends and half-finished projects that I would like to bring to a succesful conclusion. Just to name a few:

  • a new sapphirine bearing locality from Proterozoic Greenland
  • orthoamphibole and orthopyroxene in transitional granulites
  • initial melting at low P
  • garnet and titanite breakdown in FeTi basalt dykes
  • estimating melt compositions in migmatites


Universities within and outside the Netherlands:

Utrecht, VU Amsterdam, Salamanca (Spain), Toulouse and St Etienne (France), Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), Turku (Finland)

Supervision PhDs


Mr. Prasanna Dharmapriya, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka)



Supervision MSc Students

2018 supervisor - Estefanía Bravo Gutiérrez
2018 supervisor - Jeroen Postema, U-Pb Geochronology Suriname
2018 supervisor – Ali Salisbury, Zircon U-Pb Geochronology Suriname
2018 Jeroen Goumans, MSc thesis on the Sara’s Lust Gneisses, Suriname
2017 supervisor - Sabine Korevaar, "On the evolution of the Eastern Granulites of the Mozambique Belt - Case study of the Wami River Complex – East Tanzania "
2017 supervisor - Hugo van Schrojenstein Lantman, "Metamorphic evidence for a rollback-driven sequence of subduction and exhumation of the upper nappes of the Nevado-Filabride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain"
2017 supervisor - Sjors Essers, "Structural relations around the Ophiolite Unit – El Chive Unit boundary in the Sierra de los Filabres with emphasis on serpentinite bodies"
2017 supervisor - Wouter Roesink, "Meteorite or meteowrong? A case study of a presumed iron octahedrite"
2016 supervisor - Thomas van der Werf, Petrological study of lower crustal xenoliths from Baja California
2016 supervisor - Sjors Essers, U-Pb zircon geochronology of 4 samples from the Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Suriname
2016 supervisor - Oscar Groenhof, U-Pb zircon geochronology of 4 samples from the Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Suriname
2016 supervisor - Anna van Soest, Arrested charnockitisation in Sri Lanka and South India
2015 Supervisor - Arne Verdonk - P-T evolution and geochronology of xenoliths from Morocco
2015 Supervisor - Marjolein Veneman - P-T-t constraints on the Neoproterozoic Highland-Vijayan thrust in SE Sri Lanka
2015 supervisor - Merijn van Logtestijn, Metabasite remelting in Sri Lanka
2015 supervisor - Rick Verberne, Zircon U-Pb dating and P-T conditions of asapphirine-bearing mafic to ultramafic window in the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt, Greenland
2015 supervisor - Robbin Visser, Age pattern and P-T path of an inverted crust-mantle section, Sri Lanka
2013 Supervisor - Jorien van der Wal - In situ sapphire growth in Sri Lanka
2013 Supervisor - Christina Malandri - P-T conditions of the Dryos Unit and the underlying Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Paros, Greece
2012 Supervisor - Nikki Blaauwbroek - Petrological study of the contact metamorphic aureole surrounding the Kolinummi anorthosite intrusion (SW Finland)
2011 Supervisor - Ingrid van Namen - Fry method appplied to garnet bearing rocks with a melt component
2010 Supervisor - Joost van Hoeflaken - Hercynian UHT metamorphism of crustal xenoliths from Bou Ibalghatene and Tafraoute, Middle Atlas, Morocco
2010 Supervisor - Ingrid van Namen - Petrological analysis of crustal xenoliths from Gourougou, Guelliz and Trois Fourches volcanoes, Northern Morocco

Supervision BSc Students

2018 supervisor – Frances Versluis, exchange visit to Azores volcanological observatory
2017 supervisor - Sander Hoogendoorn, U-Pb Age determination of zircon crystals by LA-ICP-MS from rhyolites and granites in the Rosebel gold district, Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Suriname
2017 supervisor – Mees Franke, U-Pb dating of zircon in TTG and granite by LA-ICP-MS in the Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Guyana Shield
2017 supervisor – Hans van Melick, Additional U-Pb zircon geochronology, Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Suriname
2017 supervisor – Stan Bakker, Additional U-Pb zircon geochronology, Marowijne Greenstone Belt, Suriname
Available student projects



Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Dharmapriya P.L., Malaviarachchi S.P.K., Kriegsman L.M., Sajeev K., Galli A., Osanai Y., Subasinghe N.D., Dissanayake C.B. 2017. Distinct metamorphic evolution of alternating silica-saturated and silica-deficient microdomains within garnet in ultrahigh-temperature granulites. An example from Sri Lanka. Geoscience Frontiers 8: 1115-1133.
Go to website (DOI)

Dharmapriya P.L., Malaviarachchi S.P.K., Kriegsman L.M., Galli A., Sajeev K., Zhang, C. 2017. New constraints on the P-T path of HT/UHT metapelites from the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka. Geoscience Frontiers 8: 1405-1430.
Go to website (DOI)

Driouch Y., Debat P., Ganne J., Béziat D., Kriegsman L.M., Martignole, J. 2017. The cordierite-orthoamphibole rocks of the Variscan Dome of Gavarnie-Gèdre-Héas: the gedrite of Gèdre (Hautes Pyrénées, France). Canadian Mineralogist 55: 245-281.
Go to website (DOI)

Werf Th. van der, Chatzaras V., Kriegsman L.M., Kronenberg A. Tikoff B., Drury M.R., 2017. Constraints on the rheology of lower crust in a strike-slip plate boundary: Evidence from the San Quintin xenoliths, Baja California, Mexico. Solid Earth 8: 1211-1239.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Pla F., Kriegsman L.M., Geyer A., Herrero H. 2015. Observing silicic magma transport in dykes at depths of 8-19 km: Evidences from crustal xenoliths and numerical modelling. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 296: 69-79.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Leeuwen T. van, Kriegsman L.M., Tol J. van, Schokkenbroek J. 2014. The changing role of museums in the global scientific landscape. Journal of Scientometric Research 2: 137-145.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Leeuwen T. van, Kriegsman L., Tol J. van, Schokkenbroek J. 2011. The changing role of Museums in the global scientific landscape. Proceedings of Issi 2011: The 13th Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, Vol. 1 and 2 2: 381-391.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Kriegsman L.M. 2010. Chemical, petrological and mass balance constraints on the textural evolution of pelitic enclaves. Lithos 116: 300-309.
Go to website (DOI)

Kriegsman L.M., Alvarez-Valero A.M. 2010. Melt-producing versus melt-consuming reactions in pelitic xenoliths and migmatites. Lithos 116: 310-320.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Kriegsman L.M. 2008. Partial crustal melting beneath the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain): The case study of Mar Menor volcanic suite. Lithos 101: 379-396.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Kriegsman L.M. 2007. Crustal thinning and mafic underplating beneath the Neogene Volcanic Province (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain): evidence from crustal xenoliths. Terra Nova 19: 266-271.
Go to website (DOI)

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Cesare B., Kriegsman L.M. 2007. Formation of spinel-cordierite-feldspar-glass coronas after garnet in metapelitic xenoliths: Reaction modelling and geodynamic implications. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 25: 305-320.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Cesare B., Kriegsman L.M. 2005. Formation of elliptical garnet in a metapelitic enclave by melt-assisted dissolution and reprecipitation. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 23: 65-74.
Go to website (DOI)

Cenki B., Kriegsman L.M. 2005. Tectonics of the Neoproterozoic Southern Granulite Terrain, South India. Precambrian Research 138: 37-56.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alvarez-Valero A.M., Kriegsman L.M., Cesare B. 2004. P-T paths in crustal enclaves: Examples from the Neogene Volcanic Province, Spain. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: A665-A665.

Nystrom A.I., Whitehouse M.J., Kriegsman L.M. 2004. Oxygen isotopes in garnets from pelitic migmatites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: A668-A668.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Johannes W., Ehlers C., Kriegsman L.A., Mengel K. 2003. The link between migmatites and S-type granites in the Turku area, southern Finland. Lithos 68: 69-90.
Go to website (DOI)

Nystrom A.I., Kriegsman L.M. 2003. Prograde and retrograde reactions, garnet zoning patterns, and accessory phase behaviour in SW Finland migmatites, with implications for geochronology. Geological Society: Special Publications 220: 213-230.

Kriegsman L.M., Nystrom A.I. 2003. Melt segregation rates in migmatites: review and critique of common approaches. Geological Society: Special Publications 220: 203-212.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Rajavuori L., Kriegsman L.M. 2002. Fluorine in orthoamphibole dominated Zn-Cu-Pb deposits: examples from Finland and Australia. Geological Society: Special Publications 204: 337-353.

Cenki B., Kriegsman L.M., Braun I. 2002. Melt-producing and melt-consuming reactions in the Achankovil cordierite gneisses, South India. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 20: 543-561.

Kriegsman L.M. 2002. Where is geochronology going? Migmatite petrology and isotope transport. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66: A418-A418.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M. 2001. Prograde and retrograde processes in crustal melting from: Workshop on restite-melt and solid-vapour back reactions: Implications for petrology, tectonics, and ore forming processes Turku, Finland, 23-25 August 1999. Lithos 56: IX-XI.

Kriegsman L.M. 2001. Partial melting, partial melt extraction and partial back reaction in anatectic migmatites. Lithos 56: 75-96.

Braun I., Kriegsman L.M. 2001. Partial melting in crustal xenoliths and anatectic migmatites: A comparison. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth - Part A: Solid Earth and Geodesy 26: 261-266.

Kriegsman L.M. 2001. Quantitative field methods for estimating melt production and melt loss. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth - Part A: Solid Earth and Geodesy 26: 247-253.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Vaisanen M., Manttari I., Kriegsman L.M., Holtta P. 2000. Tectonic setting of post-collisional magmatism in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Orogen, SW Finland. Lithos 54: 63-81.

Bolder-Schrijver L.J.A., Kriegsman L.M., Touret J.L.R. 2000. Primary carbonate/CO2 inclusions in sapphirine-bearing granulites from central Sri Lanka. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 18: 259-269.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M., Schumacher J.C. 1999. Petrology of sapphirine-bearing and associated granulites from central Sri Lanka. Journal of Petrology 40: 1211-1239.

Gool J.A.M. van, Kriegsman L.M., Marker M., Nichols G.T. 1999. Thrust stacking in the inner Nordre Stromfjord area, West Greenland - Significance for the tectonic evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian orogen. Precambrian Research 93: 71-86.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M., Hensen B.J. 1998. Back reaction between restite and melt: Implications for geothermobarometry and pressure-temperature paths. Geology 26: 1111-1114.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M. 1996. Divariant and trivariant reaction line slopes in FMAS and CFMAS: Theory and applications. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 126: 38-50.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M. 1995. The Pan-African event in East Antarctica: A view from Sri Lanka and the Mozambique Belt. Precambrian Research 75: 263-277.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M. 1994. Evidence for a fold nappe in the high-grade basement of central Sri-Lanka - Terrane assembly in the Pan-African lower crust. Precambrian Research 66: 59-76.

Kroner A., Kehelpannala K.V.W., Kriegsman L.M. 1994. Origin of compositional layering and mechanism of crustal thickening in the high-grade gneiss terrain of Sri-Lanka. Precambrian Research 66: 21-37.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Kriegsman L.M. 1989. Deformation and metamorphism in the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees - evidence against a rift setting for its Variscan evolution. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 68: 335-344.

Kriegsman L.M., Aerden D.G.A.M., Bakker R.J., Denbrok S.W.J., Schutjens P.M.T.M. 1989. Variscan tectonometamorphic evolution of the eastern Lys-Caillaouas Massif, Central Pyrenees - evidence for late orogenic extension prior to peak metamorphism. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 68: 323-333.

Kriegsman L.M. 1989. Structural geology of the Lys-Caillaouas Massif, Central Pyrenees - evidence for a large-scale recumbent-fold of late variscan age. Geodinamica Acta 3: 163-170.