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Jorinde Nuytinck

Dr. J. (Jorinde) Nuytinck, Research fellow - Understanding Evolution


Email: jorinde.nuytinck@naturalis.nl
Phone: +31 (0)71 75 19 265
Room number: Vondellaan 55, 3rd floor
“The huge and largely undiscovered diversity of mushrooms, molds and yeasts makes fungal taxonomy a challenging and exciting discipline.”

The enormous diversity of life in general has always been fascinating me, but it was during my biology studies at the Ghent University in Belgium that I learned about the vast and unknown diversity of fungi. Roughly 100,000 species of fungi are accepted in the current taxonomy, but more than 400,000 fungal species names – including numerous synonyms – are recorded in the literature, and it is likely that millions of new species still await description. How all this diversity evolved is an even greater mystery. Combined with a strong interest for molecular phylogenetics, this made me decide to become a fungal taxonomist. I focus my research on fungi in the order Russulales and combine fieldwork and traditional morphological research with a cutting edge molecular approach. I enjoy and appreciate the collaboration with amateur mycologists that are often very experienced in field work and morphological species identification.


The Kits van Waveren Foundation is sponsoring me as a research fellow at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center. This gives me all the needed, modern research facilities and allows me to collaborate closely with the people of the Dutch mycological Society, who share an enormous knowledge on the fungi in The Netherlands and beyond. Before, I worked as an assistant professor at the Ghent University in the lab of Prof. Mieke Verbeken from 2006 to 2012, where I also did my PhD.


Research interest

Taxonomists create the language of biodiversity, enabling communication about different organisms among scientists and the general public. This essential work is particularly challenging in hyper diverse and morphologically cryptic groups, such as the kingdom Fungi. Especially in this new molecular era, the approach to taxonomy is about to change drastically. I combine fieldwork, morphology, microscopy and state of the art molecular phylogenetic techniques to study the evolution and diversification of fungi in the order Russulales. I am also involved in barcoding projects and a metaboarcoding project in tropical Africa.


phylogeography, barcoding, evolutionary radiations, russulales, molecular systematics, milk caps, morphology, lactarius, tropical mycology

Current research topics

The global diversity of Lactarius (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota) in space and time

This study focusses on the worldwide diversification and historical biogeography of the genus Lactarius. It is based on a global sample of morphologically and molecularly well-documented collections. This allows us to translate phylogenetic results into a stable systematic framework.

More than 420 Lactarius species have been described. They have traditionally been classified in 3 subgenera: Piperites, Russularia and Plinthogalus. This study includes more than 70% of the described diversity and more than 20 undescribed species. It proves there are at least 6 subgenera in Lactarius. The only traditional subgenus that receives high support is subg. Plinthogalus. Continental and regional endemism are high. We hypothesize that Lactarius originated in tropical Africa and that transoceanic dispersal occurred multiple times. Shifts in diversification rates in the genus will be explored and shed light on the importance of adaptive radiations in the history of Lactarius.


Lactarius montanus

ITS barcoding of the European milk caps

Together with Dr. Ursula Eberhardt (Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History) I will test a large ITS dataset of European milk caps species for the goals of DNA barcoding. There are about 130 milk cap species known from Europe. For more than 120 of these we have at least one (but often more) ITS sequences available covering the whole of Europe. These sequences will be submitted to UNITE (http://unite.ut.ee/) and then clustering methods will be applied to test species delimitation using 97 to 99% ITS sequence similarity threshold values. Results will be compared to morphological and multi-gene based species delimitation. The resulting nearly complete ITS database will be a great help for molecular identification of milk caps in Europe.


Understanding Evolution

Prof. Dr. Mieke Verbeken, Eske De Crop, Felix Hampe and Komsit Wisitrassameewong (Ghent University, Belgium)

Dr. Ursula Eberhardt (Stuttgart State Museum of Natural History, Germany)

Dutch Mycological Society

Supervision PhDs


Ongoing PhD theses:

  • Delgat L. 2015-2019, Filling the gaps: completing the Lactifluus phylogeny by assessment of its biodiversity in Latin America and forming a bridge between taxonomists and environmental ecologists.
  • De Lange R. 2015-2019
  • De Crop 2010-2016, Molecular phylogenetic biodiversity assessment of tropical African ectomycorrhizal fungi, with an emphasis on Lactifluus.

Defended PhD theses:

  • Wisitrassameewong K. 2011-2015, Diversity and phylogeny of Lactarius subgenus Russularia in South-East Asia.
  • Le Thanh H. 2002-2006, Biodiversity of the genus Lactarius (Basidiomycota) in Northern Thailand.
  • Stubbe D. 2006-2012, Systematics and phylogeny of Lactarius subgenus Plinthogalus sensu lato.
  • Van de Putte K. 2008-2012, Hidden diversity exposed. A case study of Lactifluus volemus sensu lato



I am currently contributing to the following courses:

  • Tree of Life: Biodiversity of Plants, Protists and Fungi (Leiden University)
  • Orientation on Evolution, Biodiversity and Conservation (Leiden University)
  • Minor Biodiversity and Natural Environment: Evolutionary Developments (Leiden University)
  • Veldexcursies voor eerstejaars biologiestudenten (Leiden University)

Between 2005 and 2013 I contributed to following courses at the Ghent University:

  • Mycologie, Ba2 Biologie
  • Mycology2: Basidiomycota, Ma1 Biology
  • Phylogeny and molecular evolution, Ma1 Biology
  • Biologische excursies, Ba2 Biologie
  • Biosfeer: Planten, Ba1 Geologie
  • Biosfeer: Planten, Ba2 Geografie
  • Microbial ecology, Ma1 Biology
  • Plantkunde, Ba1 Biologie
  • Plantkunde, Ba1 Diergeneeskunde
  • Plantkunde, Ba1 Farmacie
  • Plantkundige taxonomie, Ba1 Bio-ingenieur
  • Praktische taxonomie, Ma1 Biologie
Available student projects

Public outreach

Lectures for amateur mycologists:

  • Oost-Vlaamse Mycologische werkgroep, 2 Feb. 2002, Moleculaire technieken en gegevens in de systematiek van de fungi.
  • Vlaamse Mycologische Vereniging, 22 March 2003, Een kijk op ‘fylogenetische bomen’.
  • Koninklijke Antwerpse Mycologische Kring, 10 June 2003, De Oranjegroene melkzwammen en hun verwantschappen: een morfologische en moleculaire studie.
  • Vlaamse Mycologische Vereniging, 12 March 2005, Lactarius sectie Deliciosi (Russulales, Basidiomycota) en hun ectomycorrhiza: een morfologische en moleculaire benadering.
  • Koninklijke Antwerpse Mycologische Kring, 5 May 2009, Wat leert DNA ons over de systematiek van de fungi?
  • Oost-Vlaamse Mycologische werkgroep, 8 Jan. 2011, Wat leert DNA ons over de systematiek van de fungi?
  • Oost-Vlaamse Mycologische werkgroep, 4 Feb. 2012, Evolutie van de mycorrhiza-symbiose bij landplanten.
  • Koninklijke Antwerpse Mycologische Kring, 6 March 2012, DNA barcoding.
  • Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging, Floradag 6 April 2013, De melkzwammen en DNA barcoding: zin en onzin.
  • Koninklijke Vlaamse Mycologische Vereniging, Vlaamse Mycologendag 15 March 2014, DNA barcoding in Fungi.

Collaborator of the Russulales news website.



Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Zamora J.C., Svensson M., Kirschner R., Olariaga I., Ryman S., Parra L.A., Geml J., Rosling A., [...], Nuytinck J., [...], Ekman S. 2018. Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. IMA Fungus 9: 167–175.
Go to website (DOI)

Feijen F., Vos R., Nuytinck J., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2018. Evolutionary dynamics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in land plant diversification. Scientific Reports 8: 10698.
Go to website (DOI)

Niskanen T., Liimatainen K., Nuytinck J., Kirk P., Olariaga Ibarguren I., Garibay Orijel R., Norvell L., Huhtinen S., Kytövuori I., Ruotsalainen J., Niemelä T., Ammirati J.F., Tedersoo L. 2018. Identifying and naming the currently known diversity of the genus Hydnum, with an emphasis on European and North American taxa. Mycologia 110: 890-918.
Go to website (DOI)

De Crop E., Hampe F., Wissitrassameewong K., Stubbe D., Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2018. Novel diversity in Lactifluus section Gerardii from Asia: five new species with pleurotoid or small agaricoid basidiocarps. Mycologia 110: 962-984.
Go to website (DOI)

Liu L.-N., Razaq A., Atri N.S., Bau T., Belbahri L., Chenari Bouket A., Chen L.-P., Deng C., Ilyas S., Khalid A.N., Kitaura M.J., Kobayashi T., Li Y., Lorenz A.P., Ma Y.-H., Malysheva E., Malysheva V., Nuytinck J., Qiao M., Saini M.K., Scur M.C., Sharma S., Shu L.-L., Spirin V., Tanaka Y., Tojo M., Uzuhashi S., Valério-Júnior C., Verbeken A., Verma B., Wu R.-H., Xu J.-P., Yu Z.-F., Zeng H., Zhang B., Banerjee A., Beddiar A., Bordallo J.J., Dafri A., Dima B., Krisai-Greilhuber I., Lorenzini M., Mandal R., Morte A., Nath P.S., Papp V., Pavlík J., Rodríguez A., Ševcˇíková H., Urban A., Voglmayr H., Zapparoli G. 2018. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 4. - Lactifluus sainii sp. nov. (Russulaceae), an Indian milkcap species with a sparsely-developed lactiferous system.. Sydowia 70: 211–286.
Go to website (DOI)

Uniyal P., Nuytinck J., Das K. 2018. Lactarius subg. Lactarius (Russulaceae) in Indian Himalaya: two new species with morphology and phylogenetic inferences. Cryptogamie Mycologie 39: 467-482.
Go to website (DOI)

Authored books

Verbeken A., Nuytinck J. & Noordeloos M.E. 2018. Russulales part I: Lactarius and Lactifluus. Flora Agaricina Neerlandica 7 Noordeloos M.E., Kuyper T.W., Somhorst I. & Vellinga E.C. Candusso, Italy.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Crop E. de, Nuytinck J., Putte K. van de, Wisitrassameewong K., Hackel J., Stubbe D., Hyde K.D., Roy M., Halling R. E, Moreau P.-A., Eberhardt U., Verbeken A. 2017. A multi-gene phylogeny of Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) translated into a new infrageneric classification of the genus. Persoonia 38: 58-80.
Go to website (DOI)

Buyck B., Duhem B., Das K., Jayawardena R.S., Niveiro N., Pereira O.L., Prasher I.B., Adhikari S., Albertó E.O., Bulgakov T.S., Castañeda-Ruiz R.F., Hembrom M.E., Hyde K.D., Lewis D.P., Michlig A., Nuytinck J., Parihar A., Popoff O.F., Ramirez N.A., Silva M.D., Verma R.K., Hofstetter V. 2017. Fungal Biodiversity Profiles 21–30. 25. Lactarius rajmahalensis Hembrom, K. Das & A. Parihar, sp. nov.. Cryptogamie Mycologie 38: 101-146.
Go to website (DOI)

Nuytinck J., Verbeken A., Saar I., Lambert H., Bérubé J., Voitk A. 2017. Lactarius splendens, a second species with white latex in section Deliciosi. Botany 95: 859–863.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Van de Putte K., Nuytinck J., De Crop E., Verbeken A. 2016. Lactifluus volemus in Europe: three species in one revealed by a multilocus genealogical approach, Bayesian species delimitation and morphology. Fungal Biology 120: 1-25.
Go to website (DOI)

Wisitrassameewong K., Looney B., Le T.H., Crop E. De, Das K., Putte K. Van De, Eberhardt U., Jiayu G., Stubbe D., Hyde K.D., Verbeken A., Nuytinck J. 2016. Lactarius subgenus Russularia (Basidiomycota, Russulales): novel Asian species, worldwide phylogeny and evolutionary relationships. Fungal Biology 120: 1554–1581.
Go to website (DOI)

Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Vellinga E.C., Kuyper T.W., Ammirati J., Desjardin D.E., Halling R.E., Justo A., Læssøe T., Lebel T., Lodge D.J., Matheny P.B., Methven A.S., Moreau P-A., Mueller G.M., Noordeloos M.E., Nuytinck J., Ovrebo C.L., Verbeken A. 2016. Six simple guidelines for introducing new genera of fungi. IMA Fungus 6: 65-68.
Go to website (URI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Das K., Verbeken A., Nuytinck J. 2015. Morphology and phylogeny of four new Lactarius species from Himalayan India. Mycotaxon 130: 105–130.
Go to website (DOI)

Wisitrassameewong K., Nuytinck J., Le H.T., Crop E. de, Hampe F., Hyde K.D., Verbeken A. 2015. Lactarius subgenus Russularia (Russulaceae) in South-East Asia: 3. new diversity in Thailand and Vietnam. Phytotaxa 207: 215-241.
Go to website (DOI)

Wang X-H., Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2015. Lactarius vividus sp. nov. (Russulaceae, Russulales), a widely distributed edible mushroom in central and southern China. Phytotaxa 231: 63–72.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Wisitrassameewong K., Nuytinck J., Hyde K.D., Verbeken A. 2014. Lactarius subgenus Russularia (Russulaceae) in Southeast Asia: 1. Species with very distant gills. Phytotaxa 158: 23-42.
Go to website (DOI)

Verbeken A., Stubbe D., Putte K. van de, Eberhardt U., Nuytinck J. 2014. Tales of the unexpected: angiocarpous representatives of the Russulaceae in tropical South East Asia. Persoonia 32: 13-24.
Go to website (DOI)

Crop E. De, Nuytinck J., Putte K. Van de, Lecomte M., Eberhardt U., Verbeken A. 2014. Lactifluus piperatus (Russulales, Basidiomycota) and allied species in Western Europe and a preliminary overview of the group worldwide. Mycological Progress 13: 493-511.
Go to website (DOI)

Verbeken A., Hampe F., Wissitrassameewong K., Hyde K.D., Eberhardt U., Nuytinck J. 2014. A new angiocarpous Lactarius species from Thailand. Phytotaxa 181: 163–170.
Go to website (DOI)

Nuytinck J., Ammirati J.F. 2014. A new species of Lactarius section Deliciosi (Russulales, Basidiomycota) from western North America. Botany 92: 767-774.
Go to website (DOI)

Wisitrassameewong K., Nuytinck J., Hampe F., Hyde K.D., Verbeken A. 2014. Lactarius subgenus Russularia (Russulaceae) in South-East Asia: 2. Species with remarkably small basidiocarps. Phytotaxa 188: 181-197.
Go to website (DOI)

Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Eberhardt U., Verbeken A., Nuytinck J. 2014. DNA-Barcoding, Fungi and the German Barcode of Life Project (GBOL). Zeitschrift für Mykologie 80: 627-641.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Stubbe D., Wang X.-H., Nuytinck J., Putte K. van de, Verbeken A. 2012. The Australasian species of Lactarius subgenus Gerardii (Russulales). Fungal Diversity 52: 141-167.
Go to website (DOI)

Putte K. van de, Nuytinck J., Das K., Verbeken A. 2012. Exposing hidden diversity by concordant genealogies and morphology-a study of the Lactifluus volemus (Russulales) species complex in Sikkim Himalaya (India). Fungal Diversity 55: 171-194.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verbeken A., Nuytinck J., Buyck B. 2011. New combinations in Lactifluus. 1. L. subgenera Edules, Lactariopsis, and Russulopsis. Mycotaxon 118: 447-453.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verbeken A., Nuytinck J., Stubbe D. 2010. Type studies of six Australian and one New Zealand Lactarius species (Basidiomycota, Russulaceae). Cryptogamie Mycologie 31: 235-249.

Stubbe D., Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2010. Critical assessment of the Lactarius gerardii species complex (Russulales). Fungal Biology 114: 271-283.
Go to website (DOI)

Putte K. van de, Nuytinck J., Stubbe D., Verbeken A. 2010. Lactarius volemus sensu lato (Russulales) from northern Thailand: morphological and phylogenetic species concepts explored. Fungal Diversity 45: 99-130.
Go to website (DOI)


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Alaei H., Backer M. de, Nuytinck J., Maes M., Hoefte M., Heungens K. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Puccinia horiana and other rust pathogens of Chrysanthemum x morifolium based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Mycological Research 113: 668-683.
Go to website (DOI)

Putte K. van de, Kesel A. de, Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2009. A new Lactarius species from Togo with an isolated phylogenetic position. Cryptogamie Mycologie 30: 39-44.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verbeken A., Stubbe D., Nuytinck J. 2008. Two new Lactarius species from Cameroon. Cryptogamie Mycologie 29: 137-143.

Stubbe D., Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2008. Lactarius subgenus Plinthogalus of Malaysia. Fungal Diversity 32: 125-156.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Nuytinck J., Verbeken A., Miller S.L. 2007. Worldwide phylogeny of Lactarius section Deliciosi inferred from ITS and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences. Mycologia 99: 820-832.

Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2007. Species delimitation and phylogenetic relationships in Lactarius section Deliciosi in Europe. Mycological Research 111: 1285-1297.
Go to website (DOI)

Le H.T., Nuytinck J., Verbeken A., Lumyong S., Desjardin D.E. 2007. Lactarius in Northern Thailand: 1. Lactarius subgenus Piperites. Fungal Diversity 24: 173-224.

Le H.T., Stubbe D., Verbeken A., Nuytinck J., Lumyong S., Desjardin D.E. 2007. Lactarius in Northern Thailand: 2. Lactarius subgenus Plinthogali. Fungal Diversity 27: 61-94.

Le H.T., Verbeken A., Nuytinck J., Lumyong S., Desjardin D.E. 2007. Lactarius in Northern Thailand: 3. Lactarius subgenus Lactoriopsis. Mycotaxon 102: 281-291.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Nuytinck J., Miller S.L., Verbeken A. 2006. A taxonomical treatment of the North and Central American species in Lactarius sect. Deliciosi. Mycotaxon 96: 261-307.

Nuytinck J., Wang X.-H., Verbeken A. 2006. Descriptions and taxonomy of the Asian representatives of Lactarius sect. Deliciosi. Fungal Diversity 22: 171-203.

Miller S.L., Larsson E., Larsson K.-H., Verbeken A., Nuytinck J. 2006. Perspectives in the new Russulales. Mycologia 98: 960-970.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Nuytinck J., Verbeken A. 2005. Morphology and taxonomy of the European species in Lactarius sect. Deliciosi (Russulales). Mycotaxon 92: 125-168.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Nuytinck J., Verbeken A., Delarue S., Walleyn R. 2004. Systematics of European sequestrate lactarioid Russulaceae with spiny spore ornamentation. Belgian Journal of Botany 136: 145-153.

Nuytinck J., Verbeken A., Rinaldi A.C., Leonardi M., Pacioni G., Comandini O. 2004. Characterization of Lactarius tesquorum ectomycorrhizae on Cistus sp and molecular phylogeny of related European Lactarius taxa. Mycologia 96: 272-282.