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Hans ter Steege

H. (Hans) ter Steege Research Fellow- Botany

Senior Researcher, Amazon Tree Diversity

Phone: +31 71 527 1454
Room Number: van Steenis, B107



Specialised in the study of plant diversity and mechanisms generating and regulating diversity at regional and local scale with a focus on the Neotropics. During the course of previous and current work a large network of collaborating colleagues in the Neotropics has been established; also interested in translation of research findings into implications for policy and management. 

Programme Management

Ten years of programme management in Guyana, responsible for programme development and monitoring, financial management, scientific backstopping, and translation and dissemination of scientific results into recommendations for policy and forest management. Co-ordination of research programmes (Guyana, Vietnam) from the Netherlands. Acting Chair Plant Systematics (2004-2006), acting chair (Plant) Ecology and Biodiversity (2009 – 2011), Utrecht University.


Wide experience with computer technology: relational databases, Pascal programming & modelling, Matlab, R, GIS, spatial statistics.

Tropical Forest Ecology

Ecological and ecophysiological research to investigate mechanisms regulating species diversity in rainforest at small scales. Good working knowledge of forests functions, processes and resource management issues.



2012 – pr.       Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit, NCB Naturalis. Senior Researcher ‘Amazon Tree Diversity’.

2004 – 2011  Netherlands, Utrecht University. Associate Professor ‘Ecology and Biodiversity’, Research on Biodiversity in the Amazon and Guianan Forest.

2002 – 2004  Netherlands, Utrecht University and Nationaal Herbarium Nederland. Assistant Professor ‘Biodiversity Assessment’, Research on Biodiversity in the Neotropics and Flora of the Guianas.

2001 – 2002  Netherlands, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC). Associate Professor ‘Spatial Analysis of Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation’.

2001                Netherlands, Review work for ECOSYN, Wageningen University.

2001                Netherlands, Utrecht University. Researcher/consultant on contract funds from NRI, UK. Preparation of vegetation maps of Guyana; database support for Herbarium of Guyana Forestry Commission.

1998 – 2000  Netherlands, Tropenbos Foundation, based at Utrecht University, Post-doc Researcher. Research work included integration of plant diversity data for Guyana, with comparison to Guiana Shield and wider Amazon area for National Protected Areas Strategy in Guyana and assessing the long-term effects of timber extraction of tree diversity. At smaller scales work included the role of pH, aluminium and water on forest composition and the supervision of a gap experiment in mixed tropical rain forest. Guyana, Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development. Ecological and utilisation zoning of the Iwokrama Forest (360,000 ha).

1998                Netherlands/Guyana, UNDP (UNOPS). Contract to report on biomass and carbon storage potential of Guyana’s rain forest types and possibilities for carbon mitigation projects. Construction of a carbon model.

1993                Netherlands/Australia, Consultant for Ministry of Works, Ministry of Agriculture. Investigation into the sustainability of the forests management of Conservation and Land Management (West Australian Forest Service).

1992 – 1993  Utrecht University/Tropenbos Foundation, Researcher. Integration and translation of research results of the Tropenbos-Guyana Programme into policy and management recommendations.

1989 – 1993  Utrecht University, PhD research in plant ecology (Patterns in tropical rainforest in Guyana), successfully defended in 1993. Promotor: Professor Marinus J.A. Werger.


2009 – 2011  Chair Ecology and Biodiversity (Ag.).

2004 – 2006  Chair Plant Systematics (Ag.).

2002 – 2011  Member of the Board of Plant Sciences, University Utrecht; member of the Science and Education Board of the National Herbarium Netherlands (-2007); Chairman of the Biodiversity Assessment Task Force of the National Herbarium Netherlands (-2005); Member of the Editorial Board of the Flora of the Guianas (-2009).

2001 – 2002  Scientific Co-ordinator Tropenbos-Vietnam Programme.

1998 – 1999  Tropenbos Foundation, based at Utrecht University, Acting Programme Co-ordinator Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

1994 – 1998  Guyana, Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Programme Team-leader, responsible for programme development, monitoring and management, supervision of research, integration and dissemination of results to policy and management.

1989 – 1992  Guyana, Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Project Leader, responsible for programme management and supervision of research.

1987 – 1989  Guyana, Utrecht University/University of Guyana, 'Forest Project Mabura Hill', Co-ordinating Scientist with main assignments, the realisation of Forest Reserve Mabura Hill with Field Station and supervision of Dutch students in the field.

Teaching, Education, Training

2011                Member of the committee ‘BioStart’ for the restructuring of year 1 and 2 of BSc curriculum.

2010                Chairman of “Commissie Instroom Bachelor opleiding Biologie”

2009 – 2010.        Member of the Education Advisory Committee BSc curriculum (OAC-B).

2002 – pr.       Utrecht University, Coordinator of curriculum courses in Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity and landscape (award for best 2nd year course in 2009-2010), and ‘Survey of the Plant Kingdom’ in 1st year course Biodiversity.

2002 – pr.       Various courses on tropical ecology and biodiversity in the framework of collaborative projects (Brazil, Caxiuana 2004, Manaus 2005; Suriname 2005; Bolivia 2006).

2001                Contract funds from WWF-Guyana and Tropenbos-Guyana. Organisation and leading of course and workshop on Biodiversity protection in Forest Concessions.

1989 – 2001 Utrecht University, occasional lecturer, module on biodiversity, supervision MSc students, PhD students, and Post-docs.

                         University of Guyana, occasional lecturer, supervision MSc students.

1994 – 2001  University of Guyana, External Examiner, MSc Forest Biology Programme.

1987 – 1989  University of Guyana, Visiting lecturer (Survey of the Plant Kingdom, Tropical Ecology, and Neotropical Flora and Plant Taxonomy).

1985 – 1987  Utrecht University, Assistant in courses ‘Survey of the Plant Kingdom’ (1985-1987) for daytime and part time evening students, on ‘Dutch Flora’ (1986), on ‘Neotropical Flora’ (1987).

Research interests

My research focuses on understanding the origin and regulation of biodiversity, which I investigate within the framework of the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). I am particularly interested in causes for tree alpha- and beta-diversity, which I coordinate. While trees are my personal pet-plants, I also work with Herbarium material, bryophytes and vascular epiphytes.



Refereed journals

Mitchard, E.T.A., Feldpausch, T.R., Brienen, R.V., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Monteagudo, A., Malhi, Y., Baker, T.R., Lewis, S.L., , Lloyd, J., Quesada, C.A., Gloor, M., ter Steege, H., Meir, P., , Alvarez, E.V., Araujo-Murakami, A., Arroyo, L., Aymard, G. A., Banki, O., Bonal, D., Brown, S., Cerón, C.E., Chama Moscoso, V., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.M., Corrales Medina, M., Costa, F.R.C., Cruz, A.P., Cuenca, W.P., Da Costa, L., de Souza, P.B., Di Fiore, A., Domingues, T., Erwin, T.L., Espejo, J.E., Ferreira, L., Germaine, A., Higuchi, N., Honorio Coronado, E. N.,, , Levis, C., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Magnusson, W.E., Marimon, B.S., Marimon Junior, B.H., Nascimento, M.T., Neill, D., Peñuela, M.C., Pitman, N., Peres, C.A., Polo, I.C.G., Prieto, A., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Rudas, A., Salomao, R.P., Schietti, J., Silva, N., Silveira, M., Stropp, J., Terborgh, J., Thomas, R.P., Toledo, M.,, Torres-Lezama, A., Valenzuela Gamarra, L., van Andel, T.R., van der Heijden, G.M.F.,, Vargas, P.N., Vieira, I.C.G., Vilanova-Torre, E., Wang, O., Zartman, C.E., & Phillips, O.L.. (prov. accepted). Strongly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites. Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Baker, T.R., Pennington, T., Magallon, S., Laurance, W.F., Aerts, E., Alvarez, E., de Oliveira, A.A., Amaral, I., Arroyo, L., Bonal, D., Brienen, R., Chave, J., Eler, E., Feldpausch, T., Ferreira, L., Gonzalez Lopez, G., Higuchi, N., Honorio, E., Huamantupa, I., Laurance, S., Marimon, B., Marimon Junior, B.H., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D., Peñuela Mora, M.C., Pitman, N., Prieto, A., Quesada, C., Ramirez, F., Ramírez Angulo, H., Rudas, A., Rushel, A., Salamão, R., Santos, F., de Andrade, A.S., Silva, N., Silveira, M., Spironello, W., ter Steege, H., Terborgh, J., Toledo, M., Torres-Lezama, A., Vasquez, R., Vieira, I., Vilanova, E., Vos, V. & Phillips, O.L. (prov. accepted). Fast demographic traits promote high diversification of Amazonian trees. Ecology Letters.

ter Steege, H., Pitman, N. C. A., Sabatier, D., Baraloto, C., Salomão, R. P., Guevara, J. E., Phillips, O. L., Castilho, C. V., Magnusson, W. E., Molino, J.-F., Monteagudo, A., Núñez Vargas, P., Montero, J. C., Feldpausch, T. R., Coronado, E. N. H., Killeen, T. J., Mostacedo, B., Vasquez, R., Assis, R. L., Terborgh, J., Wittmann, F., Andrade, A., Laurance, W. F., Laurance, S. G. W., Marimon, B. S., Marimon, B.-H., Guimarães Vieira, I. C., Amaral, I. L., Brienen, R., Castellanos, H., Cárdenas López, D., Duivenvoorden, J. F., Mogollón, H. F., Matos, F. D. d. A., Dávila, N., García-Villacorta, R., Stevenson Diaz, P. R., Costa, F., Emilio, T., Levis, C., Schietti, J., Souza, P., Alonso, A., Dallmeier, F., Montoya, A. J. D., Fernandez Piedade, M. T., Araujo-Murakami, A., Arroyo, L., Gribel, R., Fine, P. V. A., Peres, C. A., Toledo, M., Aymard C., G. A., Baker, T. R., Cerón, C., Engel, J., Henkel, T. W., Maas, P., Petronelli, P., Stropp, J., Zartman, C. E., Daly, D., Neill, D., Silveira, M., Paredes, M. R., Chave, J., Lima Filho, D. d. A., Jørgensen, P. M., Fuentes, A., Schöngart, J., Cornejo Valverde, F., Di Fiore, A., Jimenez, E. M., Peñuela Mora, M. C., Phillips, J. F., Rivas, G., van Andel, T. R., von Hildebrand, P., Hoffman, B., Zent, E. L., Malhi, Y., Prieto, A., Rudas, A., Ruschell, A. R., Silva, N., Vos, V., Zent, S., Oliveira, A. A., Schutz, A. C., Gonzales, T., Trindade Nascimento, M., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Sierra, R., Tirado, M., Umaña Medina, M. N., van der Heijden, G., Vela, C. I. A., Vilanova Torre, E., Vriesendorp, C., Wang, O., et al. (2013). Hyper-dominance in the Amazonian Tree Flora. Science 342, 1243092. DOI: 0.26/science.243092

Malhado, A.C.M., Ladle, R.J., Whittaker, R.J., Atanásio, J.,  Neto, O., Malhi, Y. & ter Steege, H. (2013) The Ecological Biogeography of Amazonia. Frontiers of biogeography 5: 103-112.

Slik F., Paoli G., McGuire K., Amaral I., Barroso J., Bastian M., Blanc L., Bongers F., Boundja P., Clark C., Collins M., Dauby G., Ding Y., Doucet J.-L., Eler E., Ferreira L., Forshed O., Frederiksson G., Gillet J.-F., Harris D., Leal M., Laumonier Y., Malhi Y., Mansor A., Martin E., Araujo-Murakami A., Miyamoto K., Nagamasu H., Nilus R., Nurtjahya E., Oliveira A., Onrizal O., Parada-Gutierrez A., Permana A., Poorter L., Poulsen J., Ramírez H., Reitsma J., Rovero F., Rozak A., Sheil D., Silva-Espejo J., Silveira M., Spironelo W., ter Steege H., Stevart T., Aguilar G., Sunderland T., Suzuki E., Tang J., Theilade I., Heijden G., Valkenburg J., Do T., Vilanova E., Vos V., Wich S., Woll H., Yoneda T., Zang R., Zhang M.-G. & Zweifel N. (2013). Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics. Global Ecology and Biogeography. DOI: 0./geb.12092.

Mota de Oliveira, S. & ter Steege, H. (203) Epiphytic bryophytes of terra firme forests across the Amazon. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 347-363.

N. Pérez-Harguindeguy, S. Díaz, E. Garnier, S. Lavorel, H. Poorter, P. Jaureguiberry, M. S. Bret-Harte, W. K. Cornwell, J. M. Craine, D. E. Gurvich, C. Urcelay, E. J. Veneklaas, P. B. Reich, L. Poorter, I. J. Wright, P. Ray, L. Enrico, J. G. Pausas, A. de Vos, N. Buchmann, G. Funes, F. Quetier, J. G. Hodgson, K. Thompson, H. D. Morgan, H. ter Steege, M. G. A. van der Heijden, L. Sack, B. Blonder, P. Poschlod, V. Vaieretti, G. Conti, A. C. Staver, S. Aquino, J. H. C. Cornelissen (203) New handbook for standardized measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 6, 67–234.  http://dx.doi.org/0.07/BT2225

Stropp, J., van der Sleen, P., Quesada, C.A. & ter Steege, H. (203). Growth-defense trade-off does not explain tree habitat specialization in the upper Rio Negro. Plant Ecology and Diversity. http://dx.doi.org/0.080/7550874.203.77303

Emilio, T, Quesada, C.A., Costa, F., Monteagudo, A., Araujo, A., Peña-Cruz, A., Torres Lezama, A., Castilho, C.V., Neill, D., Vilanova, E., Oblitas Mendoza, E.M., Alvarez, E., Honorio, E.N., Parada, G.A., ter Steege, H., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Chave, J., Terborgh, J.W., Schietti, J., Silveira, M., Penuela-Mora, M.C., Schwarz, M., Banki, O., Philips, O.L., Thomas, R., Vasquez, R., Brienen, R.J.W., Feldpausch, T.R., Killeen, T.J., Baker, T.R., Magnusson, W.E., Malhi, Y. (203) Soil physical constraints as a limiting factor of palm and tree basal area in Amazonian forests. Plant Ecology & Diversity http://dx.doi.org/0.080/7550874.203.772257

T.R. Feldpausch, J. Lloyd,, R.J.W. Brienen, S.L. Lewis, E. Gloor, A., Monteagudo Mendoza, L. Banin,, K. Abu Salim, K. Affum-Baffoe, M. Alexiades, S. Almeida, I. Amaral, A. Andrade, L.E.O.C. Aragão, A. Araujo Murakami, E.J.M.M. Arets, L. Arroyo, G.A. Aymard C., T.R. Baker, O.S. Bánki, N.J. Berry, N. Cardozo, J. Chave, J.A. Comiskey, E.A. Dávila, A. de Oliveira, A. Di Fiore, G. Djagbletey, T.F. Domingues, T.L. Erwin, P.M. Fearnside, M.B. França, M.A. Freitas, N. Higuchi, E. Honorio, C., Y. Iida, E. Jiménez, A.R. Kassim, T.J. Killeen, W.F. Laurance, E. Lenza, J.C. Lovett, Y. Malhi, B.S. Marimon, B.H. Marimon-Junior, A.R. Marshall, C. Mendoza, D.J. Metcalfe, E.T.A. Mitchard, B.W. Nelson, R. Nilus, E.M. Nogueira, A. Parada, K.S.-H. Peh, A. Pena Cruz, M.C. Peñuela, N.C.A. Pitman, A. Prieto, C.A. Quesada, F. Ramírez, H. Ramírez-Angulo, J.M. Reitsma, A. Rudas, G. Saiz, R.P. Salomão, M. Schwarz, N. Silva, J.E. Silva-Espejo, M. Silveira, B. Sonké, J. Stropp, H.E. Taedoumg, S. Tan, H. ter Steege, J. Terborgh, M. Torello-Raventos, G.M.F. van der Heijden, R. Vásquez, E. Vilanova, V. Vos, L. White, S.Wilcock, H. Woell, O.L. Phillips (2012) Tree height integrated into pan-tropical forest biomass estimates. Biogeosciences doi:10.5194/bg-9-1-2012.

Malhado, A.C.M., Malhi, Y., Whittaker, R.J., Ladle, R.J., ter Steege, H., Phillips, O.L., Laurance, W., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Almeida, S., Pitman, N. & Ramírez, H.A. (2012) Drip-tips are associated with intensity of precipitation in the Amazon rainforest. Biotropica. 44: 728–737. 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00868.x

Toledo, M., Poorter, L., Peña-Claros, M., Alarcón, A., Balcázar, J., Chuviña, J, Leaño, C., Licaon, J.C., ter Steege, H., Bongers, F. (2012). Patrones florísticos y ambientales en los bosques de las tierras bajas de Bolivia. Revista de la Sociedad Boliviana de Botánica.

Patiño, S. Fyllas, N.M., Baker, T.R., Paiva, R.Q., Quesada, C.A., Santos, A.J.B., Schwarz, M.,ter Steege, H., Phillips, O.L. and Lloyd, J. (2012). Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees. Biogeosciences 9: 775-801. DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-775-2012.

Mota de Oliveira, S, Temme, A., Erkens, J.H.E. & ter Steege, H (2011) Dispersal and connectivity of populations of Cheilolejeunea rigidula (Nees et Mont.) R.M.Schust. (Lejeuneaceae) in Amazonian forests: a pilot study. Boletim do Instituto de Botânica21: 133-139.

Stropp, J., van der Sleen, P., Assunção, P., Lopes, A. & ter Steege, H. (2011) Tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro. Acta Amazonica 41: 521-544.

Hoang, V.S., Baas, P., Keßler, P.J.A., Slik, J.W.F., ter Steege, H. & Raes, N. (2011). Human and environmental influences on plant diversity and composition in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23: 328–337.

Toledo, M., Poorter, L., Peña-Claros, M., Alarcón, A., Balcázar, J., Chuviña, J, Leaño, C., Licaon, J.C., ter Steege, H., Bongers, F. (2011). Patterns and determinants of floristic variation across lowland forests of Bolivia. Biotropica 43: 405–413.

Hoorn, C., Wesselingh, F., ter Steege, H., Stadler, T., Sanmartín, I., Sanchez-Meseguer, A., Lisa Anderson, C., Jaramillo , C. Bermudez, M., Figueiredo, J., Riff, D., Negri, F.R., Hooghiemstra, H., Lundberg, J., Linder, H. P., Sarkinen,T.. Mora, A. & Antonelli, A. (2011). Origins of Biodiversity - Response. Science 331: 399-400.

ter Steege, H., Harripersaud, P. & Banki, O. (2011). A model of botanical collector’s behaviour in the field: Never the same species twice. American Journal of Botany 98: 31-37.

Hoorn, C., Wesselingh, F., ter Steege, H., Stadler, T., Sanmartín, I., Sanchez-Meseguer, A., Lisa Anderson, C., Jaramillo , C. Bermudez, M., Figueiredo, J., Riff, D., Negri, F.R., Hooghiemstra, H., Lundberg, J., Linder, H. P., Sarkinen,T.. Mora, A. & Antonelli, A. (2010). Amazonia through time: the effect of Andean uplift and climate change on landscape evolution and biodiversity. Science. 330: 927-931.

ter Steege, H. (2010). How neutral is ecology? Biotropica. 42: 631-633.

Malhado, A.C.M., Whittaker, R.J., Malhi, Y., Ladle, R.J., ter Steege, H., Phillips, O.L., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Baker, T.R., Arroyo, L., Almeida, S., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T., Monteagudo, A., Pitman, N., Prieto, A., Salomão, R., Vásquez-Martínez, R., Laurance, W. & Ramírez, H.A. (2010) Are compound leaves an adaptation to seasonal drought or to rapid vertical growth? Evidence from the Amazon rainforest. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 852-862.

ter Steege, H. (2010). Will tropical biodiversity survive our approach to global change?Biotropica 42: 561-562. (invited paper)

Haripersaud, P., ter Steege, H., de Granville, J.-J., Chevillotte, H. & Hof, M. (2010). Species abundance, distribution and diversity in time and space after centuries of collecting in the Guianas. Taxon. 59: 592-597.

Mota de Oliveira, S., ter Steege, H., J.H.C. Cornelissen & Gradstein, S.R. (2009). Assembly of epiphytic bryophyte communities in the Guianas: a regional approach. Journal of Biogeography 36: 2076-2084.

Gloor, M., Phillips, O.L. Malhi, Y., Lloyd, J.J., Lewis, S.L., Baker, T.R., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Peacock J., Almeida, S., Alvarez, E., Alves de Oliveira, A.C., Amaral, I., Andelman, S., Arroyo, L., Aymard, G., Bánki, O.S., Blanc, L., Bonal, D., Brando, P., Chao, K.-J., Chave, J., Davila, N., Edwin, T., Espejo, J., di Fiore, A., Feldpausch, T., Freitas, A., Herrera, R., Higuchi, N., Honorio, E., Jiménez, E., Killeen, T., Laurance, W., Mendoza, A., Montegudo, H., Nascimento, D., Neill, D., Nepstad, P., Núñez Vargas, J., Olivier, M.C., Penuela, C., Peña Cruz, A., Prieto, A., Pitman, N., Quesada, C., Salamão, R., Schwarz, M., Stropp, J., Ramírez, F., Ramírez, H., Rudas, A., ter Steege, H., Silva, N., Torres, A., Terborgh, J., Vásquez, R. & van der Heijden. G. (2009). Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data? Global Change Biology 15: 2418-2430.

Saatchi, S., Malhi, Y., Zutta, B., Buermann, W., Anderson, L.O., Araujo, A.M., Phillips, O.L.. Peacock, J., ter Steege, H., Lopez Gonzalez, G., Baker, T., Arroyo, L., Almeida, S., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D., Pitman, N., Prieto, A., Salomão, R., Silva, N., Vásquez Martínez, R., Laurance, W. & Ramírez H.A. (2009). Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia.Biogeosciences Discussions 6: 5461-5505.

Raes, N., Roos, M.C., Slik, J.W.F., van Loon, E.E. & ter Steege, H. (2009). Botanical richness and endemicity patterns of Borneo derived from species distribution models.Ecography 32: 180-192.

Stropp, J., ter Steege, H., Malhi, Y., ATDN, RAINFOR. (2009). Disentangling regional and local tree diversity in the Amazon. Ecography 32: 46-54.

Phillips, O.L., Aragão, L., Fisher, J.B., Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J., López-González, G., Malhi, Y,. Monteagudo, A., Peacock, J., Quesada, C., van der Heijden, G., Almeida, S., Amaral, I., Arroyo, L., Aymard, G., Baker, T.R., Bánki, O.S., Blanc, L., Bonal, D., Brando, P., Chave, J., de Oliveira, A.C., Dávila Cardozo, N., Espejo, J., Feldpausch, T., Aparecida Freitas, M., Higuchi, N., Jiménez, E., Meir, P., Mendoza B. C., Morel, A., Neill, D., Nepstad, D., Patiño, S., Peñuela, M.C., Prieto, A., Ramírez, F., Schwarz, M., Silveira, M., Sota, A., ter Steege, H., Stropp, J., Vásquez, R., Zelazowski, P., Alvarez Dávila, E., Andelman, S., Erwin, T., di Fiore, A., Chao, K.-J., Honorio, E., Keeling, H., Killeen, T., Laurance, W., Nascimento, H., Peña Cruz, A., Pitman, N., Núñez Vargas, P., Ramírez, H., Rudas, A., Salamão, R., Silva, N., Terborgh, J. & Torres, A. (2009). Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science. 323: 1344-1347.

Malhado, A.C.M., Malhi, Y., Whittaker, R.J., Ladle, R.J., ter Steege, H., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Quesada, C.A., Araujo, A. M. Phillips, O.L., Peacock, J., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Baker, T., Butt, N., Anderson, L.O., Arroyo, L., Almeida, S., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D., Pitman, N., Prieto, A., Salomão, R., Silva, N., Vásquez-Martínez, R. & Laurance, W. (2009). Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees. Biogeosciences 6: 1563-1576.

Malhado, A.C.M., Whittaker, R.J., Malhi, Y., Ladle, R.J., ter Steege, H., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Quesada, C.A., Araujo, A. M. Phillips, O.L., Peacock, J., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Baker, T., Butt, N., Anderson, L.O., Arroyo, L., Almeida, S., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D., Pitman, N., Prieto, A., Salomão, R., Silva, N., Vásquez-Martínez, R., Laurance, W., Alexiades, M.N. & Ramírez A, H. (2009) Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees.Biogeosciences 6: 1577-1590.

Hubbell, S.P., He, F., Condit, R., Borda-de-Água, L., Kellner, J. & ter Steege, H. (2008). Extinction Risk Estimates Are Approximations, But Not Invalid. PNAS 105: E122

Hubbell, S.P., He, F., Condit, R., Borda-de-Água, L., Kellner, J. & ter Steege, H. (2008) How Many Tree Species Are There in the Amazon and How Many of Them Will Go Extinct?PNAS 105: 11498-11504.

Saatchi, S., Buerman, W., ter Steege, H., Mori, S. & Smith, T.B. (2008). Modeling distribution of Amazonian tree species and diversity using remote sensing Measurements.Remote Sensing of the Environment 112: 2000-2017.

Raes, N. & ter Steege, H. (2007). A null-model for significance testing of presence-only species distribution models. Ecography 30: 727-736.

Parmentier, I., Malhi Y., Senterre B., Whittaker R.J., A.T.D.N. (collective author), Alonso A., Balinga M.P.B., Bakayoko A., Bongers F., Chatelain C., Comiskey J., Cortay R., Djuikouo Kamdem M.N., Doucet J.L., Gauier L., Hawthorne W.D., Issembe Y.A., Kouamé N.F., Kouka L., Leal M.E., Lejoly J., Lewis S.L., Newbery D., Nusbaumer L., Parren M., Peh K.S.-H., Phillips O.L., Poorter L., Sheil D., Sonké B., Sosef M.S.M., Sunderland T., Stropp J., ter Steege H., Swaine M., Tchouto P., van Gemerden B., van Valkenburg J., Wöll H. (2007) The odd man out? Might climate explain the lower tree α-diversity of African rain forests relative to Amazonian rain forests? Journal of Ecology 95: 1058-1071.

Hammond, D.S., ter Steege, H. & van der Borg, K. (2007). Upland soil charcoal in the wet tropical forests of central Guyana. Biotropica 39: 153-160.

Chave, J. Muller-Landau, H.C., Baker, T.R., Easdale, T., ter Steege, H. & Webb, C.O. (2006). Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16: 2356-2367.

ter Steege, H., Pitman, N.C.A., Phillips, O.L., Chave, J., Sabatier, D., Duque, A., Molino, J.-F., Prévost, M.-F., Spichiger, R., Castellanos, C., von Hildebrand, P., & Vasquez, R. (2006). Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia. Nature 443: 444-447.

Nangendo, G., ter Steege, H. & Bongers, F. (2006). Composition of woody species in a dynamic forest-woodland-savannah mosaic in Uganda: Implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1467-1495.

Nangendo, G., Stein, A., ter Steege, H., Bongers, F. (2005). Changes in woody plant composition of three vegetation types exposed to a similar fire regime for over 46 years. Forest Ecology and Management 217: 351-364

Leigh, E.G. Jr., Davidar, P., Dick, D., Puyravaud, J.-P., Terborgh, J., ter Steege, H. & Wright, S.J. (2004). Why are there so many kinds of tropical trees? Biotropica 36: 447-473.

Cornelissen, J.H.C., Lavorel, S., Garnier, E., Díaz, S., Buchmann, N., Gurvich, D.E., Reich, P.B., ter Steege, H., Morgan, H.D., van der Heijden, M.G.A., Pausas, J.G. & Poorter, H. (2003). Handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 335-380.

ter Steege, H., Pitman , N.C.A., Sabatier, S., Castellanos, H., van der Hout, P., Daly, D.C., Silveira, M., Phillips, O., Vasquez, R. van Andel, T., Duivenvoorden, J., de Oliveira, A.A., Ek, R.C., Lilwah, R., Thomas, R.A., van Essen, J., Baider, C., Maas, P.J.M., Mori, S.A., Terborgh J., Nuñez-Vargas, P Mogollón, H. & Morawetz, W. (2003). A spatial model of tree α-diversity and -density for the Amazon Region. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 2255-2276.

ter Steege, H., Welch, I. & Zagt R.J. (2002). Long-term effect of timber harvesting in the Bartica Triangle - central Guyana. Forest Ecology and Management 170: 127-144.

ter Steege, H. & Zagt, R.J. (2002). Density and diversity. Nature 417: 698-699.

ter Steege, H. & Hammond, D.S. (2001). Character convergence, diversity, and disturbance in tropical rain forest in Guyana. Ecology 82: 3197-3212.

ter Steege, H. & Hammond, D.S. (2001). Species enumerated in the National Forest Inventory of Guyana and their characteristics. Ecological Archives E082-037-A1.

ter Steege, H., Sabatier, S., Castellanos, H., van Andel, T., Duivenvoorden, J., de Oliveira, A.A., Ek, R.C., Lilwah, R., Maas, P.J.M., & Mori, S.A. (2000). An analysis of Amazonian floristic composition, including those of the Guiana Shield. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16: 801-828.

ter Steege, H., Jansen-Jacobs, M., & Datadin, V. (2000). Can botanical collections assist in a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana? Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 215-240.

ter Steege, H. (1998). The use of forest inventory data for a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 1457-1483.

ter Steege, H. (1998). Single rope techniques in tropical rain forest trees. Going down safe and sound. Biotropica 30: 496-497.

Ek, R.C. & ter Steege, H. (1998). The Flora of the Mabura Hill Area, Guyana. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie. 120: 461-502.

Hammond, D.S. and ter Steege, H. (1998). Propensity for fires in Guianan rainforests.Conservation Biology 12: 944-947.

ter Steege, H., ter Welle, B.J.H. & P. Laming. (1997). The function of buttresses in Caryocar nuciferum in Guyana. Ecological and wood anatomical observations. IAWA Bulletin18: 415-431.

Hammond, D.S., Gourlet-Fleury, S., van der Hout, P., ter Steege, H. & Brown, V.K. (1996). A compilation of known Guianan timber trees and the significance of their dispersal mode, seed size and taxonomic affinity to tropical rain forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 83: 99-116.

ter Steege, H., Boot, R.G.A., Brouwer, L., Hammond, D.S., van der Hout, P., Jetten, V.G., Khan, Z., Polak, A.M., Raaimakers, D. & Zagt, R.J. (1995). Basic and applied research for sustainable rain forest management: the Tropenbos Programme Guyana.Ecological Applications 5: 904-910.

ter Steege, H. (1994). Flooding and drought tolerance of seedlings of two Mora species, segregated along a soil hydrological gradient in the tropical rain forest of Guyana.Oecologia 100: 356-367.

ter Steege, H. (1994). Seedling growth. of Mora gonggrijpii, a large seeded climax species, under different soil and light conditions. Vegetatio 112: 161-170.

ter Steege, H. (1993) Rain forest types on a sandy watershed in Guyana. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 43: 398-399.

ter Steege, H., Jetten, V.G., Polak, M. & Werger, M.J.A. (1993). The tropical rain forest types and soils of a watershed in Guyana, South America. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 705-716.

ter Steege, H., Bokdam, C., Boland, M., Dobbelsteen, J. & Verburg. I. (1994). The effects of man made gaps on germination, early survival, and morphology of Chlorocardium rodiei seedlings in Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10: 245-260.

ter Steege, H. & Persaud, C.A. (1991). The phenology of Guyanese timber species: a compilation of a century of observations. Vegetatio 95: 177-198.

ter Steege, H. & Cornelissen, J.H.C. (1989). Distribution and ecology of vascular epiphytes in lowland rain forest in Guyana. Biotropica 21: 331-339.

Cornelissen, J.H.C. & ter Steege, H. (1989). Distribution and ecology of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in dry evergreen forest in Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 131-150.


ter Steege, H. (ed.) (2003). Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia. Tropenbos Series 22. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 215 pp.

ter Steege, H. & collaborators (2000). Plant diversity in Guyana. With recommendations for a National Protected Area Strategy. Tropenbos Series 18. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 220 pp.

ter Steege, H., Boot, R.G.A., Brouwer, L.C., Caesar, J.C., Ek, R.C., Hammond, D.S., Haripersaud, P.P., van der Hout, P., Jetten, V.G., van Kekem, A.J., Kellman, M.A., Khan, Z., Polak, A.M., Pons, T.L., Pulles, J., Raaimakers, D., Rose, S.A., van der Sanden, J.J. & Zagt, R.J. (1996). Ecology and logging in a tropical rain forest in Guyana. With recommendations for forest management. Tropenbos Series 14. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 123 pp

ter Steege, H. (1993) Patterns in Tropical rain forest in Guyana. PhD Thesis, University of Utrecht. Tropenbos Series 3. Stichting Tropenbos, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 159 pp.

ter Steege, H. (1990) A monograph. of Wallaba, Mora and Greenheart. Tropenbos technical Series 5. Tropenbos, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 141 pp.


Udo de Haes, H.A., Burger, C.P.J., Hortensius, D., Lammerts van Bueren, E.M., Persoon , G.A., van de Stadt, J.N. & ter Steege, H. (2007) Pretoets gelijkwaardigheid certificatiesystemen voor duurzaam geproduceerd hout: Eindrapport van de Commissie Gelijkwaardigheidtoetsing. Stichting Milieu Keur, Den Haag.

ter Steege, H., Bánki, O.S., Jansen-Jacobs, M., Ramharakh, G. & Tjon, K (2005). Plant diversity of Lely Mountains, Suriname. Report of the Nov-Dec 2004 Expedition. Internal report. NHN-Utrecht, BBS-Paramaribo.

ter Steege, H., Bánki, O.S., van Andel, T., Behari-Ramdas, J. & Ramharakh, G. (2004) Plant diversity of the Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname. Report of the Nov-Dec 2003 Expedition. Internal report. NHN-Utrecht, BBS-Paramaribo.

ter Steege, H. (2004) Tree diversity plots in the Charabaru Creek Area, Upper Berbice, Guyana. Internal report. NHN-Utrecht. 14 pp.

ter Steege, H. (2003) Data Management and Analysis of Management Inventory of VW&GL. Short report on work carried out for VW&G Ltd. 18-19 December 2003. Unpublished report, NHN-Utrecht. 4 pp.

Bánki, O.S., ter Steege, H., Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. & Raghoenandan, U. (2003) Plant diversity of the Nassau Mountains, Suriname. Report of the 2003 Expedition. Internal report. NHN-Utrecht, BBS-Paramaribo. 48 pp.

ter Steege, H., Sabatier, D., Molino, J.F., Bánki, O.S., Prévost, M.F. &, Pellisier R. (2003)Report of the establishment of a permanent one hectare-plot in Réserve Naturelle Volontaire Trésor. Internal report NHN-Utrecht, IRD-Cayenne, Trésor Foundation. 44 pp.

ter Steege, H. (2001) Database development for the GFC herbarium. Consultancy Report prepared for Guyana Forestry Commission. 31 pp.

ter Steege, H. (2001) Mapping Forest and Vegetation of Guyana at Regional and National Level. Consultancy Report prepared for Guyana Forestry Commission (including 1:1,000,000 vegetation map of Guyana and 1:250,000 digital vegetation maps of State Forest Lands). 42 pp.

ter Steege, H. (2001). Biomass estimates for forest in Guyana and their use in carbon offsets. Research Report 2001-01. Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development/UNDP, Georgetown, Guyana. 44 pp.

ter Steege, H., Lilwah, R,, Ek, R.C., van der Hout, P., Thomas, R.S., van Essen, J. & Jetten, V.G. (2000). Composition and diversity of the rain forest in Central Guyana. An addendum to ‘Soils of the rainforest in Central Guyana’. Report 2000-1. Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Georgetown, Guyana. 75 pp.

ter Steege, H. Hammond, D.S. & van den Borg, K. (2000). A retrospective study of fire as catastrophic disturbance in present-day tropical rainforests of central Guyana. Unpublished Report. Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development, Utrecht University. 22 pp.

van Dam, O., Rose, S.A., Houter, N., Hammond, D.S., ter Steege, H. (1999). The Pibiri Gap Experiment. A study of the gap size on seedlings survival and growth, edaphic conditions, microclimate, ecophysiology and insect herbivory. Site description, methodologies and experimental set-up. Report 99-1. Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Georgetown, Guyana. 42 pp.

ter Steege, H. (1998) The biogeographical significance of the Iwokrama Forest. Forest ecological and floristic perspectives. Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development, Georgetown, Guyana.

ter Steege, H. (1997). WINPHOT, a Windows 3.1 programme to analyse vegetation indices, light and light quality from hemispherical photographs. Report 97-3. Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Georgetown, Guyana. 53 pp.

Riezebos, H.Th., ter Steege, H. & Schotveld, A. (1994). Management of Karri forests in SW Western Australia. Contract DWW-320 Final Report. Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University and the National Reference Centre for Nature, Forests and Landscape (IKC-NBLF). 50 pp.

ter Steege, H. (1994). HEMIPHOT, a programme to analyse vegetation indices, light and light quality from hemispherical photographs. Tropenbos Documents 3. Stichting Tropenbos, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 43 pp.

ter Steege, H. (1992). Checklist to plants collected around Mabura Hill. Tropenbos Programme Guyana, Georgetown, Guyana. 30 pp.

van der Hoeve, H., Stroband, A.G., van Schaik, A.W.J., Bink, F.A., Rodenburg, K. & ter Steege, H. (1984). Behouden vaart. Onderzoek naar waterrecreatie en natuur in de Nieuwkoopsche plassen en de Kagerplassen. Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer, Leersum, The Netherlands.

Other (book chapters, newsletters etc.)

Nangendo, G., Bongers, F., ter Steege, H. & de Gier, A. (2010). Vegetation variation in forest-woodland-savanna mosaics in uganda and its implication for conservation.Pages 153-170 In Bongers, F. (ed.) Earthscan, UK.

Stropp, J., Ancieta, L., Ramirez, E., Brazão, R., van der Sleen, P. & ter Steege, H. (2010) Herbivoria e especifidade de habitat de árvores. Florestas de campinarana e de terra firme no alto Rio Negro. Pages 181-191 in: Cabalzar, A. (Ed.). Manejo do Mundo. Conhecimentos e práticas dos povos indígenas do Rio Negro. Foirn, ISA, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Brazil.

ter Steege, H. ATDN, RAINFOR. (2010). Contribution of current and historical processes to patterns of tree diversity and composition of the Amazon. Pages 349-359 in: Hoorn, C., Wesselingh, F. & Vonhof, H. (eds.) Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution.Wiley-Blackwell, UK.

ter Steege, H. (2007). Diversiteit in het Amazone regenwoud. Trésor Nieuws 22: 11-13.

ter Steege, H., Bánki, O.S. Haripersaud, P.P. (2007). Plant diversity of the Bauxite plateaus of North East Suriname. Pp: 76-85 & 156-218 in Alonso, L.E. and J.H. Mol (eds.). A rapid biological assessment of the Lely and Nassau plateaus, Suriname (with additional information on the Brownsberg Plateau). RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 43. Conservation International, Arlington, USA.

Zagt, R.J. & ter Steege, H. (2004). Biodiversiteit en bosbeschermingsstrategieën voor Guyana. Ecologie en Ontwikkeling 66, 36-39.

Haripersaud, P. & ter Steege, H. (2004) Virtual Tree Guide of the Guianas. CD-ROM, NHN-Utrecht.

ter Steege, H. (2003). Plant Ecology. Pp. 7-8, 52-54 in: Huber, O. & Foster, M.N. (eds.).Conservation priorities for the Guayana Shield – 2002 Consensus. Conservation International, Washington, USA.

ter Steege, H. (2003). Introduction. Pp. 5-18 in: ter Steege, H. (ed.) Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia. Tropenbos Series 22. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

ter Steege, H., Laumans, B., Laumans-Bus, D., Zondervan, G. & Bongers, F. (2003). Long-term effect of timber harvesting in north Suriname. Pp. 79-94 in: ter Steege, H. (ed.)Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia. Tropenbos Series 22. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

ter Steege, H., Welch, I. & Zagt, R. (2003) Long-term effect of timber harvesting in the Bartica Triangle - central Guyana. Pp. 135-155 in: ter Steege, H. (ed.) Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia. Tropenbos Series 22. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Verburg, R., ter Steege, H. & Zagt, R. (2003). Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: synthesis and implications for management. Pp. 175-191 in: ter Steege, H. (ed.)Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia. Tropenbos Series 22. Tropenbos International, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Perreijn, C.E., Grootjans, K.H., Verhoeven, J.T.A., Olde Venterink, H., ter Steege, H & Werger, M.J.A. (2002). Contribution os symbiotic N2 Fixation and denitrification to the N balance of various tropical rain forest types in Guyana. In: Perreijn, C.E.Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous trees in tropical rain forest in Guyana. Tropenbos Guyana Series No 11, Tropenbos Guyana. Pp. 63-81.

Ros, M. & ter Steege, H. (2002). The Tropenbos Vietnam Programme – A strategic ITC Research Collaboration Initiative. ITC News 2002-1: 17-19.

ter Steege, H. (2001). Striving for a National Protected Areas System in Guyana. Flora of the Guianas Newsletter 22: 65-66.

ter Steege, H. (2000). Striving for a National Protected Areas System in Guyana.Tropenbos Newsletter 22: 2-4.

ter Steege, H. (1998). Sustainable forest management. Is it possible? In: Tropenbos.Research in tropical rain forest. Its challenges for the future. Seminar Proceedings. Stichting Tropenbos, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Pp. 163-167.

Ek, R.C., ter Steege, H. & Biesmijer, K.C. (1997). Vertical distribution and association of vascular epiphytes in four different forest types in the Guianas. In: Ek R.C. Botanical Diversity in the Tropical Rainforest of Guyana. Tropenbos Guyana Series No 4, Tropenbos Guyana. Pp. 65-89

ter Steege, H. & Hammond, D.S. (1996). Forest management in the Guianas: Ecological and Evolutionary constraints on Timber Production. BOS NiEuWSLETTER 15: 62-69.

ter Steege, H., Bongers, F. & Werger, M.J.A. (1996). Ecological constraints for forest management in the Guianas. In: Schmidt P and Schotveld A (eds.). Sustainable management of the Guyana Rain Forests. Co-production nr C-8, Hinkeloord report nr. 18. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Pp. 29-44.

ter Steege, H. (1996). Ecology and logging in a tropical rain forest in Guyana. Tropenbos Newsletter 11: 5-7.

Jetten, V.G., ter Steege, H., Riezebos, H.T.H. & Burrough, P. (1994). Using spatial analysis to compare patterns in rain forest with ecological gradients. In Jetten V.G. Modelling the effects of logging on the water balance of a tropical rain forest: A study in Guyana. Tropenbos Series 6. Stichting Tropenbos, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Pp. 22-38.

ter Steege, H. (1991). Phenology: the art of planning your trips. Flora of the Guianas Newsletter 8: 23-24 .

ter Steege, H. & Cornelissen, J.H.C. (1988). Collecting and studying bryophytes in the canopy of standing rain forest trees. In: Glime JM (ed.) Methods in Bryology. Proc. Bryol. Meth. Workshop, Mainz. Pp 295-290. Hattori Bot. Lab., Nichinan.

Maas, P.J.M., van Reenen, G.B.A. & ter Steege, H. (1987,1988,1989). Neotropische flora van A tot Z. Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Utrecht, Utrecht. 285 pp.

ter Steege, H. & Cornelissen, J.H.C. (1986). In de kruinen van het oerwoud (In the canopy of the rain forest). Houtwereld 39: 27-29.

Cornelissen, J.H.C. & ter Steege, H. (1986). Vertical distribution of epiphytes in a rainforest of Guyana. Flora of the Guianas Newsletter 3: 17-19.

ter Steege, H. & Rodenburg, K. (1984). De inventarisatie van rietvogels (Census of reed birds). Vogeljaar 32: 169-175.


Haripersaud, P. & ter Steege, H. (2003) Virtual Tree Guide of the Guianas.http://web.science.uu.nl/Amazon/VTGG/Main.htm

ter Steege, H. (2003). Flora of the Guianas. Moved to NCB-Naturalis.

ter Steege, H. (2003). Amazon Tree Diversity Network.http://web.science.uu.nl/Amazon/ATDN/

ter Steege, H. (2000). Winphot download site.http://web.science.uu.nl/Amazon/winphot/wp_index.htm

Book reviews

Gourlet-Fleury, S., Guehl, J.-M. & Laroussinie, O. (2004). Ecology and Management of a Neotropical Rainforest. Lessons learned from Paracou, long-term experimental research site in French Guiana. Elsevier, Paris. Forest Ecology and Management 211: 385-386 (2005).

Goulding, M., Barthem, R. & Ferreira, E (2003). The Smithsonian Atlas of the Amazon. Smithsonian Books, Washington USA. Plant Syst. Evol. 252: 119-120 (2005).

Magurran, A. (2004). Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.Plant Syst. Evol. 250: 264-266 (2005).

Phillips, O. & Miller, J (2002). Global Patterns of Plant Diversity: Alwyn H. Gentry Forest Transect Data Set. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 89. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Plant Syst. Evol. 249: 129-131 (2004).

Turner I.M. (2001) The ecology of trees in a tropical rain forest.(Cambridge Tropical Biology Series). Cambridge University Press. Plant Syst. Evol. 236:107-114 (2002).

Please contact the author when you are interested in one of the articles below and it is not available online or in the repository [Repository].