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Hans ter Steege

Dr. H. (Hans) ter Steege, Research fellow - Botany, Amazon Tree Diversity


Email: hans.tersteege@naturalis.nl
Phone: +31 (0)71 7519 272
Room number: DW4.E03-02
“It amazes me that 1 hectare of tropical forest can have more than 300 tree species. Why, how?”

I am keenly interested in the study of plant diversity and mechanisms generating and regulating diversity at regional and local scale with a focus on the Amazon Rainforest. I have built up large network of collaborating colleagues in the Amazon and outside: The Amazon Tree Diversity Network. With this network we study patterns and processes of species composition, relative abundance patterns, and functional behaviour of the Amazon forest, and its evolution.

I lived and worked ten years in Guyana where I managed the Tropenbos Guyana Programme, responsible for programme development and monitoring, financial management, scientific backstopping, and translation and dissemination of scientific results into recommendations for policy and forest management. After returning to the Netherlands, I worked at the Utrecht University, as a consultant, at the International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation, and finaly at Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

I was lucky that computers arrived at the Universities when I was a student in Biology and was an early adopter of computer technology including relational databases, Pascal programming & modelling, Matlab, R, GIS, spatial statistics.



2014 – 2016 Visiting Professor, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Para, Brazil.

2012 – pr. Naturalis  Biodiversity Center. Senior Research Fellow ‘Amazon Tree Diversity’.

2004 – 2011 Netherlands, Utrecht University. Associate Professor ‘Ecology and Biodiversity’, Research on Biodiversity in the Amazon and Guianan Forest.

2002 – 2004 Netherlands, Utrecht University and Nationaal Herbarium Nederland. Assistant Professor ‘Biodiversity Assessment’, Research on Biodiversity in the Neotropics and Flora of the Guianas.

2001 – 2002 Netherlands, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC). Associate Professor ‘Spatial Analysis of Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation’.

2001 Netherlands, Utrecht University. Researcher/consultant on contract funds from NRI, UK. Preparation of vegetation maps of Guyana; database support for Herbarium of Guyana Forestry Commission.

1998 – 2000 Netherlands, Tropenbos Foundation, based at Utrecht University, Post-doc Researcher. Research work included integration of plant diversity data for Guyana, with comparison to Guiana Shield and wider Amazon area for National Protected Areas Strategy in Guyana and assessing the long-term effects of timber extraction of tree diversity. At smaller scales work included the role of pH, aluminium and water on forest composition and the supervision of a gap experiment in mixed tropical rain forest.

1998 Guyana, Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development. Ecological and utilisation zoning of the Iwokrama Forest (360,000 ha).

1998 Netherlands/Guyana, UNDP (UNOPS). Contract to report on biomass and carbon storage potential of Guyana’s rain forest types and possibilities for carbon mitigation projects. Construction of a carbon model.

1993 Netherlands/Australia, Consultant for Ministry of Works, Ministry of Agriculture. Investigation into the sustainability of the forests management of Conservation and Land Management (West Australian Forest Service).

1992 – 1993 Utrecht University/Tropenbos Foundation, Researcher. Integration and translation of research results of the Tropenbos-Guyana Programme into policy and management recommendations.

1989 – 1993 Utrecht University, PhD research in plant ecology (Patterns in tropical rainforest in Guyana), successfully defended in 1993. Promotor: Professor Marinus J.A. Werger.


2009 – 2011 Chair Ecology and Biodiversity (Ag.).

2004 – 2006 Chair Plant Systematics (Ag.).

2002 – 2011 Member of the Board of Plant Sciences, University Utrecht; member of the Science and Education Board of the National Herbarium Netherlands (-2007); Chairman of the Biodiversity Assessment Task Force of the National Herbarium Netherlands (-2005); Member of the Editorial Board of the Flora of the Guianas (-2009).

2001 – 2002 Scientific Co-ordinator Tropenbos-Vietnam Programme.

1998 – 1999 Tropenbos Foundation, based at Utrecht University, Acting Programme Co-ordinator Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

1994 – 1998 Guyana, Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Programme Team-leader, responsible for programme development, monitoring and management, supervision of research, integration and dissemination of results to policy and management.

1989 – 1992 Guyana, Tropenbos-Guyana Programme, Project Leader, responsible for programme management and supervision of research.

1987 – 1989 Guyana, Utrecht University/University of Guyana, 'Forest Project Mabura Hill', Co-ordinating Scientist with main assignments, the realisation of Forest Reserve Mabura Hill with Field Station and supervision of Dutch students in the field.


Research interest

My research focuses on understanding the origin and regulation of biodiversity, which I investigate within the framework of the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). I am particularly interested in causes for tree alpha- and beta-diversity. While trees are my personal pet-plants, I also work with Herbarium material, bryophytes and vascular epiphytes.





Full list of scientific products



amazon, community ecology, floristic composition, tree diversity

Current research topics

  • Dominance and diversity of the Amazon Forest
  • Threats to the Amazon Tree Flora
  • Mono-dominance in the Amazon
  • Discovery of the Amazonian Tree Flora
  • Species estimation in poorly sampled regions
  • Dispersal and beta diversity



Coordination of the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (c. 170 colleagues in all 9 Amazon countries, US, UK, France, Australie, Gemany, Norway and the Netherlands

Member of Rainfor

Member of the Network of Neotropical Biogeography


We regularly conduct trip to the field to collect specimens and set up plots.

Our latest trip was to the WaiWai conservation Area in Southern Guyana. See our blog.

Supervision PhDs


Marcela de Castro Nunes Santos Terra. Universidade Federal de Lavras (External Supervisor).

Vitor Freitas. Barcoding the Amazon. Universidad Federal do Para (Supervisor).

Ivo Abraão. Pteridophytes diversity in the Brejas of NE Brazil. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil (External Supervisor).

Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira. Bryophytes in Forest remnants in Bahia. Universidade Federal da Bahia (External Supervisor).

Edwin Pos. Understanding the world’s most diverse forest: A model of beta diversity for the Amazon. Utrecht University (co-promotor).

Laura Victoria Campos Salazar. Distribución y ecología de briofitos epífitos del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu – Amazonas (Colombia). Universidad Nacional De Colombia (‘director’).

Do Van Nhan Tree Biomass, Composition and Diversity in Vietnam – study based on 3000 4-ha plots. Utrecht University (co-promotor).

Maria Cristina Penuela Mora. Understanding Colombian Amazonian White Sand Forests. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended October 1, 2014.

Juliana Stropp Carneiro. Towards an understanding of tree diversity in Amazonian forests. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended March 21, 2011.

Marisol Toledo. Patterns in species diversity, forest structure and dynamics along environmental gradients in the lowland forests of Bolivia. Wageningen University (PhD Advisor). Thesis successfully defended June 1, 2010.

Sylvia Mota de Oliveira. Diversity of epiphytic bryophytes across the Amazon. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended April 26, 2010.

Olaf Bánki. Neutrality, Ecology and Tree-Diversity in the Guianas. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended April 19, 2010.

Padmattie Haripersaud. Developing theory for the use of botanical specimen data in biodiversity research. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended September 21, 2009.

Niels Raes. Plant Diversity Assessment of Malesia deduced from Collection Databases. Leiden University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended February 2009.

Karl Eichorn. Biodiversity in logged and burned forest in Borneo. Leiden University (PhD Referent). Thesis successfully defended May 2006.

Grace Nangendo. Fire and Biodiversity in Ugandan Ecosystems. ITC and Wageningen University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended June 2005.

Oscar van Dam. Forest filled with gaps: effects of gap size on water and nutrient cycling in tropical rain forest: a study in Guyana. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended May 2001.

Simmone Rose. Seeds, saplings and gaps: a study in the tropical rain forest of Guyana. Utrecht University (co-promotor). Thesis successfully defended December 2000. 



2011 Member of the committee ‘BioStart’ for the restructuring of year 1 and 2 of BSc curriculum.

2010 Chairman of “Commissie Instroom Bachelor opleiding Biologie”

2009 – 2010 Member of the Education Advisory Committee BSc curriculum (OAC-B).

2002 – pr Utrecht University, Associate Professor, Coordinator of curriculum course Biodiversity and Landscape (award for best 2nd year course in 2009-2010).

2002 – 2013 Utrecht University, Coordinator of curriculum courses in Evolutionary Biology, and ‘Survey of the Plant Kingdom’ in 1st year course Biodiversity.

2002 – pr. Various courses on tropical ecology and biodiversity in the framework of collaborative projects (Brazil, Caxiuana 2004, Manaus 2005; Suriname 2005; Bolivia 2006).

2001 Contract funds from WWF-Guyana and Tropenbos-Guyana. Organisation and leading of course and workshop on Biodiversity protection in Forest Concessions.

1989 – 2001 Utrecht University, occasional lecturer, module on biodiversity, supervision MSc students, PhD students, and Post-docs.

1989 – 2001 University of Guyana, occasional lecturer, supervision MSc students.

1994 – 2001 University of Guyana, External Examiner, MSc Forest Biology Programme.

1987 – 1989 University of Guyana, Visiting lecturer (Survey of the Plant Kingdom, Tropical Ecology, and Neotropical Flora and Plant Taxonomy).

1985 – 1987 Utrecht University, Assistant in courses ‘Survey of the Plant Kingdom’ (1985-1987) for daytime and part time evening students, on ‘Dutch Flora’ (1986), on ‘Neotropical Flora’ (1987).

Supervision MSc Students

2013 Co-supervisor - IJff - Putting maximum entropy species distribution modelling (MaxEnt) to the test
2012 Co-supervisor: de Graaf & Loverbos - Distance decay of similarity in the Eastern Amazon
Available student projects

Public outreach

Radio performances

An interview on WEBZ's World view as a result of the publication 'Half of all amazonian tree species may be globally threatened': Listen here



Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Baker T.R., Vela D., Moscoso V.C., Navarro G., Monteagudo A., Pinto R., Cangani K., Lopez Gonzalez G., Laurance W.F., Lewis S.L., Steege H. ter, Terborgh J.W., Phillips O.L. 2016. Consistent, small effects of tree-fall disturbances on the composition and diversity of four Amazonian forests. Journal of Ecology: (pending).
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Guevara J.E., Damasco G., Baraloto C., Fine P.V.A., Peñuela M.C., Bánki O., Castilho C., Vincentini A., Cárdenas D., Wittmann F., Targhetta N., Phillips O., Stropp J., Amaral I., Maas P., Monteagudo A., Jimenez E. M., Thomas R., Brienen R., Duque A., Magnusson B., Ferreira C., Honorio E., Almeida Matos F. de, Ramirez Arevalo F., Engel J., Petronelli P., Vasquez R., Steege H. ter 2016. Low phylogenetic beta diversity and neo-endemism in Amazonian white sand forests. Biotropica 48: 34-46.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Mota de Oliveira S., Steege H. ter 2015. Bryophyte communities in the Amazon forest are regulated by height on the host tree and site elevation. Journal of Ecology 103: 441-450.
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Brienen R.J.W., Phillips O.L., Feldpausch T.R., Gloor E., Baker T.R.,. Lloyd J, Lopez-Gonzalez G., Monteagudo-Mendoza A., Alexiades M., Alvarez-Loayza P., Andrade A., Aragão L.E.O.C., Araujo-Murakami A., Arets E.J.M.M., Aymard C.G.A., Baraloto C., Barroso J., Bonal D., Boot R.G.A., Chama V., Chao K.J., Chave J., Comiskey J.A., Cornejo F. Valverde, Costa L. da, Oliveira E. de, Fiore A. Di, Erwin T.L., Fauset S., Forsthofer M., Grahame S., Groot N., Herault E., Honorio C., Keeling H., Killeen T.J., Laurance W.F., Laurance S., Lewis S.L., Licona J., Malhi Y., Marimon B.S., Marimon-Junior B.H., Neill D.A., Nogueira E.M., Nunez P., Pallqui Camacho N.C., Parada A., Pardo G., Peacock J., Pena-Claros, Pickavance G.C., Pitman N.C.A., Poorter L., Prieto A., Quesada C.A., Ramírez F., Ramírez-Angulo H., Restrepo Z., Roopsind A., Rudas A., Salomão R.P., Schwarz M., Silva N., Silva-Espejo J.E., Silveira M., Stropp J., Talbot J., Steege H. ter, Teran-Aguilar J., Terborgh J., Thomas-Caesar R., Toledo M., Torello-Raventos M., Umetsu R.K., Heijden G.M.F. van der, Hout P. van der, Vásquez Martinez R., Vieira I.,Vieira S.A., Vilanova E., Vos V., Zagt R. 2015. Long-term decline of the Amazon forest carbon sink. Nature 519: 344-348.
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Fauset S., Johnson M.O., Gloor M., Baker T.R., Monteagudo A.M., Brienen R.J.W., Feldpausch T.R., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Malhi Y., Steege H. ter, Pitman N.C.A., Baraloto C., Engel J., Petronelli P., Andrade A., Camargo J.L.C., Laurance S.G.W., Laurance W.F., Chave J., Allie E., Nunez Vargas P., Terborgh J.W., Ruokolainen K., Silveira M., Aymard G.A.C., Arroyo L., Bonal D., Ramirez-Angulo H., Araujo-Murakami A., Neill D., Herault B., Dourdain A., Torres-Lezama A., Marimon B.S., Salomao R.P., Comiskey J.A., Rejou-Mechain M., Toledo M., Licona J.C., Alarcon A., Prieto A., Rudas A., Meer P.J. van der, Killeen T.J., Marimon Junior B-H., Poorter L., Boot R.G.A., Stergios B., Vilanova Torre E., Costa F.R.C., Levis C., Schietti J., Souza P., Groot N., Arets E., Chama Moscoso V., Castro W., Honorio Coronado E.N., Peña-Claros M., Stahl C., Barroso J., Talbot J., Guimarães Vieira I.C., Heijden G. van der, Thomas R., Vos V.A., Almeida E.C., lvarez Davila E.A., Aragao L.E.O.C., Erwin T.L., Morandi P.S., Almeida de Oliveira E., Valadao M.B.X., Zagt R.J., Hout P. van der, Alvarez Loayza P., Pipoly J.J., Wang O., Alexiades M., Ceron C.E., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco I., Di Fiore A., Peacock J., Pallqui Camacho N.C., Umetsu R.K., Barbosa de Camargo P., Burnham R.J., Herrera R., Quesada C.A., Stropp J., Vieira S.A., Steininger M., Reynel Rodriguez C., Restrepo Z., Esquivel Muelbert A., Lewis S.L., Pickavance G.C., Phillips O.L. 2015. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling. Nature Communications 6: 6857.
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Campos L.V., Steege H. ter, Uribe J. 2015. The epiphytic bryophyte flora of the Colombian Amazon. Caldasia 37: 47-59.
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Poorter L., van der Sande M.T., Thompson J., Arets E.J.M.M., Alarcón A., Álvarez-Sánchez J., Ascarrunz N., Balvanera P., Barajas-Guzmán G., Boit A., Bongers F., Carvalho F.A., Casanoves F., Cornejo-Tenorio G., Costa F.R.C., de Castilho C.V., Duivenvoorden J.F., Dutrieux L.P., Enquist B.J., Fernández-Méndez F., Finegan B., Gormley L.H.L., Healey J.R., Hoosbeek M.R., Ibarra-Manríquez G., Junqueira A.B., Levis C., Licona J.C., Lisboa L.A., Magnusson W.E., Martínez-Ramos M., Martínez-Yrizar A., Martorano L.G., Maskell L.C., Mazzei L., Meave J.A., Mora F., Muñoz R., Nytch C., Pansonato M.P., Parr T.W., Paz H., Pérez-García E.A., Rentería L.Y., Rodríguez-Velazquez J., Rozendaal D.M.A., Ruschel A.R., Sakschewski B., Salgado-Negret B., Schietti J., Simões M., Sinclair F.L., Souza P.F., Souza F.C., Stropp J. ter Steege H., Swenson N.G., Thonicke K., Toledo M., Uriarte M., van der Hout P., Walker P., Zamora N., Peña-Claros M. 2015. Diversity enhances carbon storage in tropical forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11: 1314-1328.
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Honorio Coronado E.N., Dexter K.G., Pennington R.T., Chave J., Lewis S.L., Alexiades M.N., Alvarez E., Alves de Oliveira A., Amaral I.L., Araujo-Murakami A., Arets E.J.M.M., Aymard G.A., Baraloto C., Bonal D., Brienen R., Cerón C., Cornejo Valverde F., Di Fiore A., Farfan-Rios W., Feldpausch T.R., Higuchi N., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco I., Laurance S.G., Laurance W.F., López-Gonzalez G., Marimon B.S., Marimon-Junior B.H., Monteagudo Mendoza A., Neill D., Palacios Cuenca W., Peñuela Mora M.C., Pitman N.C.A., Prieto A., Quesada C.A., Ramirez Angulo H., Rudas A., Ruschel A.R., Salinas Revilla N., Salomão R.P., Segalin de Andrade A., Silman M.R., Spironello W., ter Steege H., Terborgh J., Toledo M., Valenzuela Gamarra L., Vieira I.C.G., Vilanova Torre E., Vos V., Phillips O.L.. 2015. Phylogenetic diversity of Amazonian tree communities. Diversity and Distributions 11: 1295-1307.
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ter Steege H., Pitman N.C.A., Killeen T.J., Laurance W.F., Peres C.A., Guevara J.E., Salomão R.P., Castilho C.V., Amaral I.L., de Almeida Matos F.D., Coelho L.d.S., Magnusson W.E., Phillips O.L., Lima Filho D.d.A., Carim M.d.J.V., Irume M.V., Martins M.P., Molino J-F., Sabatier D., Wittmann F., Cárdenas López D., Guimarães J.R.d.S., Monteagudo Mendoza A., Núñez Vargas P., Manzatto A.G., Reis N.F.C., Terborgh J., Casula K.R., Montero J.C., Feldpausch T.R., Honorio Coronado E.N., Duque Montoya A.J., Zartman C.E., Mostacedo B., Vasquez R., Assis R.L., Medeiros M.B., Simon M.F., Andrade A., Laurance S.G.W., Mendonça Nascimento H.E., Marimon B.S., Marimon Jr. B-H., Costa F., Targhetta N., Vieira I.C.G., Brienen R., Castellanos H., Duivenvoorden J.F., Mogollón H.F.., Piedade M.T.F., Aymard C. G.A., Comiskey J.A., Damasco G., Dávila N., García-Villacorta R., Stevenson Diaz P.R., Vincentini A., Emilio T., Levis C., Schietti J., Souza P., Alonso A., Dallmeier F., Ferreira L.V., Neill D., Araujo-Murakami A., Arroyo L., Carvalho F.A., Coelho Souza F., Dantas do Amaral D., Gribel R., Luize B.G., Pansonato M.P., Venticinque E., Fine P., Toledo M., Baraloto C., Cerón C., Engel J., Henkel T.W., Jimenez E.M., Maas P., Peñuela Mora M.C., Petronelli P., Revilla J.D.C., Silveira M., Stropp J., Thomas-Caesar R., Baker T.R., Daly D., Ríos Paredes M., Chave J., da Silva N.F., Fuentes A., Jørgensen P.M., Schöngart J., Silman M.R., Castaño Arboleda N., Cintra B.L., Cornejo Valverde F., Di Fiore, A. Phillips J.F., Rivas-Torres G., van Andel T.R., von Hildebrand P., Barbosa E.M., Bonates L.C.d.M., de Castro D., Farias E.d.S., Gonzales T., Guillaumet J.-L., Hoffman B., Malhi Y., Miranda I.P.d.A., Prieto A., Rudas A., Ruschell A.R., Silva N., Vela C.I.A., Vos V.A., Zent E.L., Zent S., Cano A., Nascimento M.T., Oliveira A.A., Ramirez-Angulo H., Ramos J.F., Sierra R., Tirado M., Umaña Medina M.N., van der Heijden G., Vilanova Torre E., Vriesendorp C., Wang O., Young K.R., Baider C., Balslev H., de Castro N., Farfan-Rios W., Ferreira C., Mendoza C., Mesones I., Torres-Lezama A., Urrego Giraldo L.E., Villarroel D., Zagt R., Alexiades M.N., Garcia-Cabrera K., Hernandez L., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco I., Milliken W., Palacios Cuenca W., Pansini S., Pauletto D., Ramirez Arevalo F., Sampaio A.F., Valderrama Sandoval E.H., Valenzuela Gamarra L. 2015. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species. Science Advances 1: e1500936.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Campos L.V., Gradstein R., Uribe-M J., Steege H. ter 2014. Additions to the Catalogue of Hepaticae of Colombia II. Cryptogamie Bryologie 35: 77-92.
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Baker T.R., Pennington R.T., Magallon S., Gloor E., Laurance W.F., Alexiades M., Alvarez E., Araujo A., Arets E.J.M.M., Aymard G., Oliveira A.A. de, Amaral I., Arroyo L., Bonal D., Brienen R.J.W., Chave J., Dexter K.G., Fiore A. di, Eler E., Feldpausch T.R., Ferreira L., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Heijden G. van der, Higuchi N., Honorio E., Huamantupa I., Killeen T.J., Laurance S., Leano C., Lewis S.L., Malhi Y., Marimon B.S., Marimon Junior B.H., Monteagudo Mendoza A., Neill D., Penuela-Mora M.C., Pitman N., Prieto A., Quesada C.A., Ramirez F., Ramirez A.H., Rudas A., Ruschel A.R., Salomao R.P., Andrade A.S. de, Silva J.N.M., Silveira M., Simon M.F., Spironello W., Steege H. ter, Terborgh J., Toledo M., Torres-Lezama A., Vasquez R., Guimaraes V.I.C., Vilanova E., Vos V.A., Phillips O.L. 2014. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees. Ecology Letters 17: 527-536.
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Emilio T., Quesada C.A., Costa F.R.C., Magnusson W.E., Schietti J., Feldpausch T.R., Brienen R.J.W., Baker T.R., Chave J., Alvarez E., Araujo A., Banki O., Castilho C.V., Honorio C.E.N., Killeen T.J., Malhi Y., Oblitas Mendoza E.M., Monteagudo A., Neill D., Alexander P.G., Pena-Cruz A., Ramirez-Angulo H., Schwarz M., Silveira M., Steege H. ter, Terborgh J.W., Thomas R., Torres-Lezama A., Vilanova E., Phillips O.L. 2014. Soil physical conditions limit palm and tree basal area in Amazonian forests. Plant Ecology & Diversity 7: 215-229.
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Stropp J., Sleen P. van der, Quesada C.A., Steege H. ter 2014. Growth-defense trade-off does not explain tree habitat specialization in the upper Rio Negro. Plant Ecology & Diversity 7: 255-265.
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Mitchard E.T.A., Feldpausch T.R., Brienen R.V., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Monteagudo A., Malhi Y., Baker T.R., Lewis S.L., Lloyd J., Quesada C.A., Gloor M., Steege H. ter, Meir P., Alvarez E.V., Araujo-Murakami A., Arroyo L., Aymard G.A., Banki O., Bonal D., Brown S., Cerón C.E., Chama Moscoso V., Chave J., Comiskey J.M., Corrales Medina M., Costa F.R.C., Cruz A.P., Cuenca W.P., Costa L. Da, Souza P.B. de, Fiore A. Di, Domingues T., Erwin T.L., Espejo J.E., Ferreira L., Germaine A., Higuchi N., Honorio Coronado E.N., Levis C., Killeen T.J., Laurance W.F., Magnusson W.E., Marimon B.S., Marimon Junior B.H., Nascimento M.T., Neill D., Peñuela M.C., Pitman N., Peres C.A., Polo I.C.G., Prieto A., Ramirez-Angulo H., Rudas A., Salomao R.P., Schietti J., Silva N., Silveira M., Stropp J., Terborgh J., Thomas R.P., Toledo M., Torres-Lezama A., Valenzuela Gamarra L., Andel T.R. van, Heijden G.M.F. van der, Vargas P.N., Vieira I.C.G., Vilanova-Torre E., Wang O., Zartman C.E., Phillips O.L. 2014. Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 935–946.
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Pos E., Guevara Andino J.E., Sabatier D., Molino J., Pitman N., Mogollón H., Neill D., Cerón C., Rivas G., Di Fiore A., Thomas R., Tirado M., Young K.R., Wang O., Sierra R., García-Villacorta R., Zagt R., Palacios W., Aulestia M., Steege H. ter 2014. Are all species necessary to reveal ecologically important patterns?. Ecology and Evolution 4: 4626-4636.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Perez-Harguindeguy N., Diaz S., Garnier E., Lavorel S., Poorter H., Jaureguiberry P., Bret-Harte M.S., Cornwell W.K., Craine J.M., Gurvich D.E., Urcelay C., Veneklaas E.J., Reich P.B., Poorter L., Wright I.J., Ray P., Enrico L., Pausas J.G., Vos A.C. de, Buchmann N., Funes G., Quetier F., Hodgson J.G., Thompson K., Morgan H.D., Steege H. ter, Heijden M.G.A. van der, Sack L., Blonder B., Poschlod P., Vaieretti M.V., Conti G., Staver A.C., Aquino S., Cornelissen J.H.C. 2013. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 61: 167-234.
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Slik J.W.F., Paoli G., McGuire K., Amaral I., Barroso J., Bastian M., Blanc L., Bongers F., Boundja P., Clark C., Collins M., Dauby G., Ding Y., Doucet J.-L., Eler E., Ferreira L., Forshed O., Fredriksson G., Gillet J.-F., Harris D., Leal M., Laumonier Y., Malhi Y., Mansor A., Martin E., Miyamoto K., Araujo-Murakami A., Nagamasu H., Nilus R., Nurtjahya E., Oliveira A., Onrizal O., Parada-Gutierrez A., Permana A., Poorter L., Poulsen J., Ramirez-Angulo H., Reitsma J., Rovero F., Rozak A., Sheil D., Silva-Espejo J., Silveira M., Spironelo W., Steege H. ter, Stevart T., Navarro-Aguilar G.E., Sunderland T., Suzuki E., Tang J., Theilade I., Heijden G. van der, Valkenburg J. van, Van Do T., Vilanova E., Vos V., Wich S., Woell H., Yoneda T., Zang R., Zhang Ming G., Zweifel N. 2013. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22: 1261-1271.
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Mota de Oliveira S., Steege H. ter 2013. Floristic overview of the epiphytic bryophytes of terra firme forests across the Amazon basin. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 347-363.
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Steege H. ter, Pitman N.C.A., Sabatier D., Baraloto C., Salomão R.P., Guevara J.E., Phillips O.L., Castilho C.V., Magnusson W.E., Molino J.-F., Monteagudo A., Núñez Vargas P., Montero J.C., Feldpausch T.R., Coronado E.N.H., Killeen T.J., Mostacedo B., Vasquez R., Assis R.L., Terborgh J., Wittmann F., Andrade A., Laurance W.F., Laurance S.G.W., Marimon B.S., Marimon B.-H., Guimarães Vieira I.C., Amaral I.L., Brienen R., Castellanos H., Cárdenas López D., Duivenvoorden J.F., Mogollón H.F., Matos F.D.d.A., Dávila N., García-Villacorta R., Stevenson Diaz P.R., Costa F., Emilio T., Levis C., Schietti J., Souza P., Alonso A., Dallmeier F., Montoya A.J.D., Fernandez Piedade M.T., Araujo-Murakami A., Arroyo L., Gribel R., Fine P.V.A., Peres C.A., Toledo M., Aymard C. G.A., Baker T.R., Cerón C., Engel J., Henkel T.W., Maas P., Petronelli P., Stropp J., Zartman C.E., Daly D., Neill D., Silveira M., Paredes M.R., Chave J., Lima Filho D.d.A., Jørgensen P.M., Fuentes A., Schöngart J., Cornejo Valverde F., Di Fiore A., Jimenez E.M., Peñuela Mora M.C., Phillips J.F., Rivas G., van Andel T.R., von Hildebrand P., Hoffman B., Zent E.L., Malhi Y., Prieto A., Rudas A., Ruschell A.R., Silva N., Vos V., Zent S., Oliveira A.A., Schutz A.C., Gonzales T., Trindade Nascimento M., Ramirez-Angulo H., Sierra R., Tirado M., Umaña Medina M.N., van der Heijden G., Vela C.I.A., Vilanova Torre E., Vriesendorp C., Wang O., Young K.R., Baider C., Balslev H., Ferreira C., Mesones I., Torres-Lezama A., Urrego Giraldo L.E., Zagt R., Alexiades M.N., Hernandez L., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco I., Milliken W., Palacios Cuenca W., Pauletto D., Valderrama Sandoval E., Valenzuela Gamarra L., Dexter K.G., Feeley K., Lopez-Gonzalez G. & Silman M.R. 2013. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian Tree Flora. Science 342: 1243092.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Malhado A.C.M., Ladle R.J., Whittaker R.J., Atanásio J., Neto O., Malhi Y., Steege H. ter 2013. The Ecological Biogeography of Amazonia. Frontiers in Biogeography 5: 103-112.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Feldpausch T.R., Lloyd J., Lewis S.L., Brienen R.J.W., Gloor M., Monteagudo Mendoza A., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Banin L., Abu Salim K., Affum-Baffoe K., Alexiades M., Almeida S., Amaral I., Andrade A., Aragao L.E.O.C., Araujo Murakami A., Arets E.J.M.M., Arroyo L., Aymard G.A., Baker T.R., Banki O.S., Berry N.J., Cardozo N., Chave J., Comiskey J.A., Alvarez E., Oliveira A. de, Di Fiore A., Djagbletey G., Domingues T.F., Erwin T.L., Fearnside P.M., Franca M.B., Freitas M.A., Higuchi N., Honorio E., Iida Y., Jimenez E., Kassim A.R., Killeen T.J., Laurance W.F., Lovett J.C., Malhi Y., Marimon B.S., Marimon-Junior B.H., Lenza E., Marshall A.R., Mendoza C., Metcalfe D.J., Mitchard E.T.A., Neill D.A., Nelson B.W., Nilus R., Nogueira E.M., Parada A., Peh K.S.-H., Pena Cruz A., Penuela M.C., Pitman N.C.A., Prieto A., Quesada C.A., Ramirez F., Ramirez-Angulo H., Reitsma J.M., Rudas A., Saiz G., Salomao R.P., Schwarz M., Silva N., Silva-Espejo J.E., Silveira M., Sonke B., Stropp J., Taedoumg H.E., Tan S., Steege H. ter, Terborgh J., Torello-Raventos M., Heijden G.M.F. van der, Vasquez R., Vilanova E., Vos V.A., White L., Willcock S., Woell H., Phillips O.L. 2012. Tree height integrated into pantropical forest biomass estimates. Biogeosciences 9: 3381-3403.
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Patino S., Fyllas N.M., Baker T.R., Paiva R., Quesada C.A., Santos A.J.B., Schwarz M., Steege H. ter, Phillips O.L., Lloyd J. 2012. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees. Biogeosciences 9: 775-801.
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Malhado A.C.M., Malhi Y., Whittaker R.J., Ladle R.J., Steege H. ter, Fabre N.N., Phillips O., Laurance W.F., Aragao L.E.O.C., Pitman N.C.A., Ramirez-Angulo H., Malhado C.H.M. 2012. Drip-tips are associated with intensity of precipitation in the Amazon Rain Forest. Biotropica 44: 728-737.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Toledo M., Poorter L., Pena-Claros M., Alarcon A., Balcazar J., Chuvina J., Leano Claudio, C.L.J., Steege H. ter, Bongers F. 2011. Patterns and determinants of floristic variation across lowland forests of Bolivia. Biotropica 43: 405-413.
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Hoorn C., Wesselingh F.P., Steege H. ter, Bermudez M.A., Mora A., Sevink J., Sanmartin I., Sanchez-Meseguer A., Anderson C.L., Figueiredo J.P., Jaramillo C., Riff D., Negri F.R., Hooghiemstra H., Lundberg J., Stadler T., Saerkinen T., Antonelli A. 2011. Origins of Biodiversity Response. Science 331: 399-400.

Hoang V.S., Baas P., Kessler P.J.A., Slik J.W.F., Steege H. ter, Raes N. 2011. Human and environmental influences on plant diversity and composition in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23: 328-337.

Steege H. ter, Haripersaud P.P., Banki O.S., Schieving F. 2011. A model of botanical collectors' behavior in the field: never the same species twice. American Journal of Botany 98: 31-37.
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Stropp J., Sleen P.V., Assunção P.A., Silva A.L., Steege H.T. ter 2011. Tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro. Acta Amazonica 41: 521-544.

Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Mota de Oliveira S., Temme A., Erkens J.H.E., Steege H. ter 2011. Dispersal and connectivity of populations of Cheilolejeunea rigidula (Nees et Mont.) R.M.Schust. (Lejeuneaceae) in Amazonian forests: a pilot study. Boletim do Instituto de Botanica 2: 133-139.
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Toledo M., Poorter L., Peña-Claros M., Alarcón A., Balcázar J., Chuviña J, Leaño C., Licaon J.C., Steege H. ter, Bongers 2011. Patrones florísticos y ambientales en los bosques de las tierras bajas de Bolivia. Revista de la Sociedad Boliviana de Botánica 5: 15-23.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Haripersaud P., Steege H. ter, Granville J.-J. de, Chevillotte H., Hoff M. 2010. Species abundance, distribution and diversity in time and space after centuries of botanical collecting in the Guianas. Taxon 59: 592-597.

Steege H. ter 2010. Will tropical biodiversity survive our approach to global change?. Biotropica 42: 561-562.
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Malhado A.C.M., Whittaker R.J., Malhi Y, Ladle R.J., Steege H. ter, Phillips O., Aragao L.E.O.C., Baker T.R., Arroyo L., Almeida S., Higuchi N., Killeen T.J., Monteagudo A., Pitman N.C.A., Prieto A., Salomao R.P., Vasquez-Martinez R., Laurance W.F., Ramirez-Angulo H. 2010. Are compound leaves an adaptation to seasonal drought or to rapid growth? Evidence from the Amazon rain forest. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 852-862.
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Hoorn C., Wesselingh F.P., Steege H. ter, Bermudez M.A., Mora A., Sevink J., Sanmartin I., Sanchez-Meseguer A., Anderson C.L., Figueiredo J.P., Jaramillo C., Riff D., Negri F.R., Hooghiemstra H., Lundberg J., Stadler T., Saerkinen T., Antonelli A. 2010. Amazonia through time: Andean uplift, climate change, landscape evolution and biodiversity. Science 330: 927-931.
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Steege H. ter 2010. How neutral is ecology?. Biotropica 42: 631-633.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Malhado A.C.M., Malhi Y., Whittaker R.J., Ladle R.J., Steege H. ter, Phillips O.L., Butt N., Aragao L.E.O.C., Quesada C.A., Araujo-Murakami A., Arroyo L., Peacock J., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Baker T.R., Anderson L.O., Almeida S., Higuchi N., Killeen T.J., Monteagudo A., Neill D., Pitman N., Prieto A., Salomao R.P., Vasquez-Martinez R., Laurance W.F. 2009. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees. Biogeosciences 6: 1563-1576.

Malhado A.C.M., Whittaker R.J., Malhi Y., Ladle R.J., Steege H. ter, Butt N., Aragao L.E.O.C., Quesada C.A., Murakami-Araujo A., Phillips O.L., Peacock J., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Baker T.R., Anderson L.O., Arroyo L., Almeida S., Higuchi N., Killeen T.J., Monteagudo A., Neill D.A., Pitman N.C.A., Prieto A., Salomao R.P., Vasquez-M R., Laurance W.F., Ramirez A.H. 2009. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees. Biogeosciences 6: 1577-1590.

Mota de Oliveira S., Steege H. ter, Cornelissen J.H.C., Gradstein S.R. 2009. Niche assembly of epiphytic bryophyte communities in the Guianas: a regional approach. Journal of Biogeography 36: 2076-2084.
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Phillips O.L., Aragao L.E.O.C., Lewis S.L., Fisher J.B., Lloyd J., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Malhi Y., Monteagudo A., Peacock J., Quesada C.A., Heijden G. van der, Almeida S., Amaral I., Arroyo L., Aymard G., Baker T.R., Banki O., Blanc L., Bonal D., Brando P., Chave J., Alves de Oliveira A.C., Cardozo N.D., Czimczik C.I., Feldpausch T.R., Freitas M.A., Gloor E., Higuchi N., Jimenez E., Lloyd G., Meir P., Mendoza C., Morel A., Neill D.A., Nepstad D., Patino S., Cristina P.M., Prieto A., Ramirez F., Schwarz M., Silva J., Silveira M., Thomas A.S., Steege H. ter, Stropp J., Vasquez R., Zelazowski P., Alvarez D.E., Andelman S., Andrade A., Chao K.-J., Erwin T., Di Fiore A., Honorio C.E., Keeling H., Killeen T.J., Laurance W.F., Pena Cruz A., Pitman N.C.A., Nunez V.P., Ramirez-Angulo H., Rudas A., Salamao R., Silva N., Terborgh J., Torres-Lezama A. 2009. Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rainforest. Science 323: 1344-1347.
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Raes N., Roos M.C., Slik J.W.F., Loon E.E. van, Steege H. ter 2009. Botanical richness and endemicity patterns of Borneo derived from species distribution models. Ecography 32: 180-192.
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Stropp J., Steege H. ter, Malhi Y. 2009. Disentangling regional and local tree diversity in the Amazon. Ecography 32: 46-54.
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Gloor M., Phillips O.L., Lloyd J.J., Lewis S.L., Malhi Y., Baker T.R., Lopez-Gonzalez G., Peacock J., Almeida S., Alves de Oliveira A.C., Alvarez E., Amaral I., Arroyo L., Aymard G., Banki O., Blanc L., Bonal D., Brando P., Chao K.-J., Chave J., Davila N., Erwin T., Silva J., Di Fiore A., Feldpausch T.R., Freitas A., Herrera R., Higuchi N., Honorio E., Jimenez E., Killeen T., Laurance W., Mendoza C., Monteagudo A., Andrade A., Neill D., Nepstad D., Nunez Vargas P., Penuela M.C., Pena Cruz A., Prieto A., Pitman N., Quesada C., Salomao R., Silveira M., Schwarz M., Stropp J., Ramirez F., Ramirez H., Rudas A., Steege H. ter, Silva N., Torres A., Terborgh J., Vasquez R., Heijden G. van der 2009. Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data?. Global Change Biology 15: 2418-2430.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Saatchi S., Buermann W., Steege H. ter, Mori S., Smith T.B. 2008. Modeling distribution of Amazonian tree species and diversity using remote sensing measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment 112: 2000-2017.
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Hubbell S.P., He F., Condit R., Borda-de-Agua L., Kellner J., Steege H. ter 2008. Reply to Feeley and Silman: Extinction risk estimates are approximations but are not invalid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: E122-E122.
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Hubbell S.P., He F., Condit R., Borda-de-Agua L., Kellner J., Steege H. ter 2008. How many tree species and how many of them are there in the Amazon will go extinct?. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 11498-11504.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Parmentier I., Malhi Y., Senterre B., Whittaker R.J., Alonso A., Balinga M.P.B., Bakayoko A., Bongers F., Chatelain C., Comiskey J.A., Cortay R., Kamdem M.-N.D., Doucet J.-L., Gautier L., Hawthorne W.D., Issembe Y.A., Kouame F.N., Kouka L.A., Leal M.E., Lejoly J., Lewis S.L., Nusbaumer L., Parren M.P.E., Peh K.S.-H., Phillips O.L., Sheil D., Sonke B., Sosef M.S.M., Sunderland T.C.H., Stropp J., Steege H. ter, Swaine M.D., Tchouto M.G.P., Gemerden B.S. van, Valkenburg J.L.C.H. van, Woell H. 2007. The odd man out? Might climate explain the lower tree alpha-diversity of African rain forests relative to Amazonian rain forests?. Journal of Ecology 95: 1058-1071.
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Hammond D.S., Steege H. ter, Borg K. van der 2007. Upland soil charcoal in the wet tropical forests of central guyana. Biotropica 39: 153-160.
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Raes N., Steege H. ter 2007. A null-model for significance testing of presence-only species distribution models. Ecography 30: 727-736.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Chave J., Muller-Landau H.C., Baker T.R., Easdale T.A., Steege H. ter, Webb C.O. 2006. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16: 2356-2367.

Nangendo G., Steege H. ter, Bongers F. 2006. Composition of woody species in a dynamic forest-woodland-savannah mosaic in Uganda: Implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1467-1495.
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Steege H. ter, Pitman N.C.A., Phillips O.L., Chave J., Sabatier D., Duque A., Molino J.-F., Prevost M.-F., Spichiger R., Castellanos H., Hildebrand P. von, Vasquez R. 2006. Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia. Nature 443: 444-447.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Nangendo G., Stein A., Steege H. ter, Bongers F. 2005. Changes in woody plant composition of three vegetation types exposed to a similar fire regime for over 46 years. Forest Ecology and Management 217: 351-364.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Leigh E.G., Davidar P., Dick C.W., Puyravaud J.P., Terborgh J., Steege H. ter, Wright S.J. 2004. Why do some tropical forests have so many species of trees?. Biotropica 36: 447-473.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Cornelissen J.H.C., Lavorel S., Garnier E., Diaz S., Buchmann N., Gurvich D.E., Reich P.B., Steege H. ter, Morgan H.D., Heijden M.G.A. van der, Pausas J.G., Poorter H. 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 335-380.
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Steege H. ter, Pitman N., Sabatier D., Castellanos H., Hout P. van der, Daly D.C., Silveira M., Phillips O., Vasquez R., Andel T. van, Duivenvoorden J., Oliveira A.A. de, Ek R., Lilwah R., Thomas R., Essen J. van, Baider C., Maas P., Mori S., Terborgh J., Vargas P.N., Mogollon H., Morawetz W. 2003. A spatial model of tree alpha-diversity and tree density for the Amazon. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 2255-2277.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Welch I., Zagt R. 2002. Long-term effect of timber harvesting in the Bartica Triangle, Central Guyana. Forest Ecology and Management 170: 127-144.

Steege H. ter, Zagt R. 2002. Ecology - Density and diversity. Nature 417: 698-699.
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Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Hammond D.S. 2001. Character convergence, diversity, and disturbance in tropical rain forest in Guyana. Ecology 82: 3197-3212.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Sabatier D., Castellanos H., Andel T. van, Duivenvoorden J., Oliveira A.A. de, Ek R., Lilwah R., Maas P., Mori S. 2000. An analysis of the floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian forests including those of the Guiana Shield. Journal of Tropical Ecology 16: 801-828.

Steege H. ter, Jansen-Jacobs M.J., Datadin V.K. 2000. Can botanical collections assist in a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana?. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 215-240.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter 1998. Single rope techniques in tropical rain forest trees: Going down safe and sound. Biotropica 30: 496-497.

Hammond D.S., Steege H. ter 1998. Propensity for fire in Guianan rainforests. Conservation Biology 12: 944-947.

Steege H. ter 1998. The use of forest inventory data for a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 1457-1483.

Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Ek R.C., Steege H. ter 1998. The Flora of the Mabura Hill Area, Guyana. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 120: 461-502.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Welle B.J.H. ter, Laming P.B. 1997. The possible function of buttresses in Caryocar nuciferum (Caryocaraceae) in Guyana: ecological and wood anatomical observations. IAWA Journal 18: 415-431.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Hammond D.S., Gourlet-Fleury S., Hout P. van der, Steege H. ter, Brown V.K. 1996. A compilation of known Guianan timber trees and the significance of their dispersal mode, seed size and taxonomic affinity to tropical rain forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 83: 99-116.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Boot R., Brouwer L., Hammond D., Hout P. van der, Jetten V.G., Khan Z., Polak A.M., Raaimakers D., Zagt R. 1995. Basic and applied-research for sound rain forest management in Guyana. Ecological Applications 5: 904-910.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter 1994. Flooding and drought tolerance in seeds and seedlings of 2 Mora species segregated along a soil hydrological gradient in the tropical rain forest of Guyana. Oecologia 100: 356-367.

Steege H. ter 1994. Seedling growth of Mora gonggrijpii, a large seeded climax species, under different soil and light conditions. Vegetatio 112: 161-170.

Steege H. ter, Bokdam C., Boland M., Dobbelsteen J., Verburg I. 1994. The effects of man made gaps on germination, early survival, and morphology of Chlorocardium rodiei seedlings in Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10: 245-260.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Jetten V.G., Polak A.M., Werger M.J.A. 1993. Tropical rain forest types and soil factors in a watershed area in Guyana. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 705-716.

Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter 1993. Rain forest types on a sandy watershed in Guyana. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 43: 398-399.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Persaud C.A. 1991. The phenology of Guyanese timber species: a compilation of a century of observations. Vegetatio 95: 177-198.


Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Steege H. ter, Cornelissen J.H.C. 1989. Distribution and ecology of vascular epiphytes in lowland rain forest of Guyana. Biotropica 21: 331-339.

Cornelissen J.H.C., Steege H. ter 1989. Distribution and ecology of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in dry evergreen forest of Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 131-150.


Press releases Hans ter Steege

Half of all amazonian tree species may be globally threatened (20-11-2015)

Calculated for the first time half all 400 billion trees amazon are made just 227 species