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Erik Smets

Prof. dr. E. F. (Erik) Smets, Scientific director and Group leader - Taxonomy and Systematics

Contact

Email: erik.smets@naturalis.nl
Phone: +31 (0)71 751 92 59
Room number: Vondellaan 55, 2332 AA Leiden, Room e06.12
“First-rate education, good questions and detailed observations are at the heart of good research in systematics and biodiversity.”

I am fascinated by flowering plants. More specifically, I am very interested in defining good characteristics - morphological as well as phytochemical and molecular - to order flowering plants in predictive groups reflecting their phylogeny. My MSc project was about the definition of placentation types, seed types and nectaries, and in my PhD thesis I continued studying the floral nectaries of the flowering plants. Both degrees were obtained at the KU Leuven (Belgium).

From the early start of my career I had many managerial tasks and a huge teaching load, two aspects of my professional life that I found very rewarding, also from a research perspective.

Career

Former and present positions 

  • 1-7-2010 – present: Scientific Director of Naturalis Biodiversity Center
  • 1-9-2005 – present: Director of the National Herbarium of the Netherlands (NHN)
  • 1-9-2005 – present: Full Professor (Chair of Systematic botany), Leiden University
  • 1-9-2005 – present: Professor (Chair of Systematic botany), KU Leuven (http://bio.kuleuven.be/eebcs/plant-conservation-and-population-biology/)
  • 1-9-2005 – 31-1-2016: Scientific Director of the Hortus botanicus Leiden (http://www.hortusleiden.nl/)
  • 1-8-2000 – 31-7-2005: Head of the Department of Biology, KU Leuven
  • 1-10-1989 – 30-11-2008: Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Plant Systematics, KU Leuven

Honours

  • Member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts (2012)
  • Member of The Royal Holland Society of Sciences and Humanities (2010)
  • Foreign Member of the Linnean Society (2005) 

Other past and current academic activities

  • Executive Committee member (Treasurer) of the Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF), since 2016.
  • Member of the Board of the Graduate School for Production Ecology and Resource Conservation (PE&RC), since 2012.
  • Member of the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the National Authority for Data concerning Nature (GAN), since 2012.
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Natural History Museum Stuttgart (SMNS) and the Natural History Museum Karlsruhe (SMNK), since 2012.
  • Council Member of the International Organisation for Systematic and Evolutionary Biology (IOSEB), since 2011.
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS-KNAW), since 2011.
  • Member of the Leopold III-Fund for Nature Research and Nature Conservation, since 2009.
  • Member of the Board of the Alberta Mennega Foundation, since 2007.
  • Chair of the Professor Lam Fund, since 2007.
  • Vice-Chair of the Board of the Flora Malesiana Foundation, since 2006.
  • Board of Directors of the Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF), since 2005.
  • Chair of “Leidse Bibliotheekstichting” Collectanea Botanica, since 2005.
  • Chair of the Dr. E. Kits van Waveren Foundation, since 2005.
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium, now Botanic Garden Meise, since 1997.
  • Member and Chair (1997-2005) of the Board of the Alumni Society PDL (“Vereniging van Afgestudeerden in de Plantkunde en de Dierkunde van de Universiteit te Leuven”), since 1991.
  • Member of the Board of ETI Bioinformatics; 2008-2012.
  • Member of the Examination Committee Biology of Leiden University; 2006-2013.
  • Board of Directors of the EU Network of Excellence “European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy”; 2006-2011.
  • Member, Vice-Chair (2008) and Chair (2009) of the Expert Panel Biodiversity and Ecology of The Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-Vlaanderen); 2000-2009.
  • Member of the Board of the Research School Biodiversity; 2005-2012.

Research

Research interest

My research interest focuses on the evolution of flowering plants, the world’s most dominant plant group. Initially, I was fascinated by the huge diversity in floral morphology. Later, my research interests expanded into floral development, pollen morphology, fruit and seed morphology, and wood anatomy. Monographic studies, still crucial for the inventory of Earth’s biodiversity, also became a major topic in my research group. The introduction of molecular systematics provided a new framework to comprehend the evolutionary relationships of plants. I strongly favor a multidisciplinary approach in which morphological features are combined with DNA sequence data and evolutionary developmental genetics (which I like to call molecular morphology) because integrative systematics will ultimately lead to better insights in the evolution of characters and in understanding the evolutionary history of flowering plants. 

Since November 2015 I am part of the Research goup Understanding evolution. I am also leading the Research group Taxonomy & Systematics.

Keywords

biogeography, phylogeny, dioscoreales, ericales, gentianales, floral development, morphology and anatomy, poales, evo-devo, systematics

Current research topics

As scientific director and member of the management team of Naturalis one of my main duties is to make our motivated group of scientist more effective. Since a few years my direct participation in research is limited, and therefore all my PhD candidates are supervised by a very dedicated daily supervisor (co-promotor). It is very rewarding though to be involved in the PhD projects mentioned below because it enables me to stay connected with current research.

Ongoing PhD projects (preliminary titles)

  • Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Calamus javensis Complex (Arecaceae,Calamoideae). (Atria, M.; promotor Van Welzen, P.)
  • Molecular phylogeny and morphological evolution of the moss family Leucobryaceae Schimp. (Bryophyta, Dicranidae). (Bonfim Santos, M.; co-promotor Stech, M.)
  • Phylogeny, evolutionary diversification and biogeography of Lower Central American orchids. (Bogarín, D.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • A xylem physiological approach to better understand insular woodiness - is drought stress involved? (Chacon Dória, L.; co-promotor Lens, F.)
  • Evolution of secondary woodiness: driver of island plant radiations? (Davin, N.; co-promotor Lens, F.)
  • Functional genomics of orchids. (Dirks-Mulder, A.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • Phylogeographical patterns between the rain forest and the amazon forest: An approach with the family Dicranaceae s.l. (Bryophyta) and other haplolepideous mosses. (Gama Dies Neto, R.; co-promotor Stech, M.)
  • The evolution of niches: a case study in Annonaceae. (Hoekstra, P.; co-promotors Wieringa, J. & Chatrou, L.)
  • Patterns of epiphytic bryophyte diversity In Gede-Pangrango National Park, Java, Indonesia. (Iskander, E.; co-promotors Stech, M. & Mota de Oliveira, S.)
  • Phylogenetic prospecting of Indonesian Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae) used as traditional antimicrobials. (Kusuma Wati, R.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • Systematics, Evolution, and Pollination Biology of Balsaminaceae in SE Asia. (Ruchisansakun, S.; co-promotor Van der Niet, T.)
  • Bacterial leaf symbiosis. Origin, function, evolutionary gain and transmission mode of endophytes in bacteriophilous Rubiaceae. (Sinnesael, A.; co-promotors Panis, B. & Verstraete, B.)

Collaborations

Most collaborations are via my research fellows, postdocs and PhD candidates. Active collaborations exist ao. with Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (http://www.kew.org/), Botanic Garden Meise (http://www.br.fgov.be/), and - of course - the laboratory of Plant conservation and population biology, KU Leuven (http://bio.kuleuven.be/eebcs/plant-conservation-and-population-biology/).

Collections

All collections of flowering plants (herbarium, fruits, seeds, wood, fixed material).

Supervision PhDs

Promotor

Promotor (*co-promotor) of successfully defended PhD projects

  • Schwallier, R. 2016. Evolutionary diversification of Nepenthes. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Semenova-Nelsen, T. 2016. Fungi of the greening Arctic: compositional and functional shifts in response to climatic changes. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Morgado, L. 2016. Peeking into the future: Fungi in the Greening Arctic. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Karremans, A. 2015. Systematic, phylogenetic and pollination studies of Specklinia (Orchidaceae). PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Mennes, C. 2015. Antiquities of the rainforest. Evolution of mycoheterotrophic angiosperms on Glomeromycota. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Lang, A. 2014. Phylogeny and species delimitation within the moss genus Dicranum Hedw.PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Towns, A. 2014. Fertility and Fontanels. Women’s knowledge of medicinal platns for reproductive health and childcare in western AfricaPhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Chaowasku, T. 2014. The Miliuseae revisited. Phylogenetic, taxonomic, and palynological studies in a major clade of Annonaceae. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Verstraete, B. 2013. Bacterial leaf endophytes in African Rubiaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Caris, P. 2013. Bloemontogenetische patronen in de Ericales sensu lato. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Kok, P. 2013. Islands in the Sky: Species Diversity, Evolutionary History, and Patterns of Endemism of the Pantepui Herpetofauna. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • *Vekemans, D. 2012. Diversification of MADS-box genes in flowering plants. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Rabaey, D. 2012. Micromorphological study of pits in tracheary elements of woody angiosperms. PhD thesis KU Leuven. 
  • Appelhans, M. 2011. Phylogeny and biogeography of Spathelioideae (Rutaceae). PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Lemaire, B. 2011. Diversity and Evolution of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Leaf Nodulated Angiosperms. PhD thesis KU Leuven. 
  • Subedi, A. 2011. New species, pollinator interactions and pharmaceutical potential of Himalayan orchids. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Boedeker, C. 2010. Phylogenetic, taxonomic and biogeographical studies in the Pithophoraceae (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta). PhD thesis Leiden University. 
  • Pruesapan, K. 2010. The rise and fall of Sauropus (Phyllanthaceae). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Sauropus and allies. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Van den Hof, K. 2010. Evolution of Viola stagnina and its sisterspecies by hybridization and polyploidization. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • *Viaene, T. 2010. Evolution of ancient MADS-gene functions. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Jacobs, B. 2010. Fruits and seeds of Dipsacales. Morphology and evolution. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Tosh, J. 2009. Biogeography of Madagascan Rubiaceae: Case studies from the Afro-Madagascan genus Tricalysia and the pantropical genus Ixora. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Geeraerts, A. 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions, morphological diversity and historical biogeography of Ebenaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Groeninckx, I. 2009. Integrated study of the herbaceous Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae). Systematics & Evolution. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Moon, H.-K. 2008. Systematic studies in Mentheae (Lamiaceae). Morphology, evolutionary aspects, phylogeny. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Merckx, V. 2008. Myco-heterotrophy in Dioscoreales. Systematics and evolution. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Janssens, S. 2008. Evolutionary studies in Balsaminaceae: integration of evidence from molecular and morphological data. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Vrijdaghs, A. 2006. A floral ontogenetic approach to homology questions in non-mapanioid Cyperaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Geuten, K. 2006. Bayesian phylogenetics and perianth evolutionary developmental genetics of the balsaminoid Ericales. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Lens, F. 2005. Systematic significance of wood anatomical characters in Ericales. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Ntore, S. 2004. Contribution à la connaissance systématique du genre afrotropical Pauridiantha (Rubiaceae). PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Schols, P. 2004. Contributions to the palynology and phylogeny of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae). PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Dessein, S. 2003. Systematic studies in the Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae). PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Vinckier, S. 2003. Orbicules: morphology, ultrastructure, and development in Gentianales and their possible role as vector of allergens. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Vermoere, M. 2002. Holocene vegetation history in the territory of Sagalassos (southwest Turkey). A palynological approach. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Pyck, N. 2001. Phylogenetic relations within Dipsacales. A combined molecular and morphological approach. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Jansen, S. 2001. Comparative wood anatomy of the Rubiaceae and phylogenetic implications of aluminium hyperaccumulation and vestured pits in angiosperms. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Piesschaert, F. 2001 Carpology and pollen morphology of the Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). Towards a new tribal and generic delimitation. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Huysmans, S. 1998. Palynology of the Cinchonoideae (Rubiaceae). Morphology and development of pollen and orbicules. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Roels, P. 1998. Phylogenetic position and delimitation of the order Dipsacales. A multidisciplinary approach. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Stoffelen, P. 1998. Coffea and Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) in tropical Africa: a systematic and palynological study, including a revision of the West and Central African species. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • De Laet, J. 1997. A reconsideration of three-item analysis, the use of implied weights in cladistics, and a practical application in Gentianaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Ronse Decraene, L.-P. 1992. The androecium of the Magnoliophytina: characterisation and systematic importance. PhD thesis KU Leuven.

Teaching

Courses

In 1999 I received a Teaching Certificate at the KU Leuven (Onderwijskundige Vorming Docenten), and in 2012 I obtained the Certificate Basic Teaching Qualification (BKO) from Leiden University).

Apart from some guest lectures, for example in the courses ‘Diversity of Algae, Fungi and Plants‘ (3rd Year Biology, KU Leuven) and ‘Plant Families of the Tropics’ (Masters Biology, Leiden University) I am teaching ‘Anatomy’ in the course ‘Tree of Life’ (1st Year Biology, Leiden University). Next, I am involved in the minor ‘Biodiversity and Natural Environment’ (3rd Year Biology, Leiden University) where I teach in the course ‘Evolutionary Developments’.

Available student projects

Public outreach

On a regular basis I am invited to talk about Plant systematics, The classification of Flowering plants, or to introduce Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Examples of recent talks are:

  • Character evolution and the classification of angiosperms. Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts, Brussels, Belgium (2013).
  • Research and Education at Naturalis. Univeridade de Brasilia, Brasil (2013), and Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia (2013).
  • Plant Systematics: Past and Present. HOVO, Leiden (2013).
  • Research at the Natural History Museum of the Netherlands: Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences, Brussels, Belgium (2014).
  • Lessons learned from experiences at the KU leuven and Leiden University: a personal view. Vietnam Forestry University, Hanoi, Vietnam (2014)
  • Naturalis: More than a Museum. Visit Bachelor students of Wageningen University (2015)
  • Naturalis: Museum, Natural History Collection, and Research Institute. Leidse Kennisdag, Leiden (2015).
  • Naturalis Biodiversity Center: Museum, Collection Infrastructure and Research Institute. Chiang Mai University, Thailand (2016).

Publications

2017

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Dirks-Mulder A., Butot R., Schaik P. van, Wijnands J.W.P.M., Berg R. van den, Krol L., Doebar S., Kooperen K. van, Boer H. de, Kramer E.M., Smets E.F., Vos R.A., Vrijdaghs A., Gravendeel B. 2017. Exploring the evolutionary origin of floral organs of Erycina pusilla, an emerging orchid model system. BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 89.
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Hoekstra P.H., Wieringa J.J., Smets E., Brandão R.D., de Carvalho Lopes J., Erkens R.H.J., Chatrou L.W. 2017. Correlated evolutionary rates across genomic compartments in Annonaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 114: 63-72.
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Groeninckx I., Janssens S., Smets E., Verstraete B. 2017. Description of 11 new Astiella (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae) species endemic to Madagascar. European Journal of Taxonomy 312: 1-40.
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2016

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Morgado L.N., Semenova T.A., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2016. Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Global Change Biology 22: 3080–3096.
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Janssens S., Vandelook F., Langhe E. de, Verstraete B., Smets E., Vandenhouwe I., Swennen R. 2016. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia. New Phytologist 210: 1453-1465.
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Lemaire B., Cauwenberghe J. van, Verstraete B., Chimphango S., Stirton C., Honnay O., Smets E., Sprent J., James E., Muasya A.M. 2016. Characterization of the papilionoid-Burkholderia interaction in the Fynbos biome: the diversity and distribution of beta-rhizobia nodulating Podalyria calyptrata (Fabaceae, Podalyrieae). Systematic And Applied Microbiology 39: 41-48.
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Janssens S., Groeninckx I., Block P. de, Verstraete B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2016. Dispersing towards Madagascar: biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 95: 58-66.
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Davin N., Edger P.P., Hefer C.A., Mizrachi E., Schuetz M., Smets E., Myburg A.A., Douglas C.J., Schranz M.E., Lens F. 2016. Functional network analysis of genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis in soc1ful woody Arabidopsis plants.. Plant Journal 86: 376-390.
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Lens F., Vos R., Charrier G., Niet T. van der, Merckx V., Baas P., Aguirre Gutierrez J., Jacobs B., Chacon Doria L., Smets E., Delzon S., Janssens S. 2016. Scalariform-to-simple transition in vessel perforation plates triggered by differences in climate during the evolution of Adoxaceae. Annals of Botany 118: 1043-1056.
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Ruchisansakun S., Tangtorwongsakul P., Cozien R., Smets E., Van Der Niet T. 2016. Floral specialization for different pollinators and divergent use of the same pollinator among co-occurring Impatiens species (Balsaminaceae) from Southeast Asia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 651-666.
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Hoehndorf R., Alshahrani M., Gkoutos G., Gosline G., Groom Q., Hamann T., Kattge J., Mota de Oliveira S., Schmidt M., Sierra S., Smets E., Vos R.. Weiland C. 2016. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 7: 65.
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Lemaire B., Chimphango S., Stirton C., Rafudeen S., Honnay O., Smets E., Chen W.M., Sprent J., James E., Muasya A. 2016. Biogeographical Patterns of Legume-Nodulating Burkholderia spp.: from African Fynbos to Continental Scales. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 5099-5115.
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Semenova T.A., Morgado L.N., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2016. Compositional and functional shifts in arctic fungal communities in response to experimentally increased snow depth. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 100: 201-209.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Bogarín D., Pupulin F., Smets E., Gravendeel B. 2016. Evolutionary diversification and historical biogeography of the Orchidaceae in Central America with emphasis on Costa Rica and Panama. Lankesteriana 16: 189-200.
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2015

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lemaire B,, Dlodlo O., Chimphango S., Stirton C., Schrire B., Boatwright J.S., Honnay O., Smets E., Sprent J., James E.K., Muasya A.M. 2015. Symbiotic diversity, specificity and distribution of rhizobia in native legumes of the Core Cape Subregion (South Africa). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: 1-17.
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Vrijdaghs A., De Block P., Verstraete B., Groeninckx I., Smets E., Dessein S. 2015. A developmental model for the corolla in Rubiaceae. Cryptic character states in corollas of the Spermacoceae alliance. Plant Ecology and Evolution 148: 237-255.
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Janssens S.B., Sonké B., Lachenaud O., Lemaires B., Simo-Droissart M., Smets E. 2015. Morphology, molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of Impatiens akomensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Cameroon. Plant Ecology and Evolution 148: 397-408.
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Morgado L.N., Semenova T.A., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2015. Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska. Global Change Biology 21: 959-972.
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Semenova T.A., Morgado L.N., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2015. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra. warming alters ascomycete communities. Molecular Ecology 24: 424-437.
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Mennes C.B., Moerland M.S., Rath M., Smets E.F., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2015. Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in Polygalaceae. American Journal of Botany 102: 598-608.
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Mennes C.B., Lam V.K.Y., Rudall P.J., Lyon S.P., Graham S.W., Smets E.F., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2015. Ancient Gondwana break-up explains the distribution of the mycoheterotrophic family Corsiaceae (Liliales). Journal of Biogeography 42: 1123-1136.
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Geml J., Morgado L.N., Semenova T.A., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E.F. 2015. Long-term warming alters richness and composition of taxonomic and functional groups of arctic fungi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: 1-13.
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Karremans A.P., Pupulin F., Grimaldi D., Beentjes K.K., Butôt R., Fazzi G.E., Kaspers K., Kruizinga J., Roessingh P., Smets E.F., Gravendeel B. 2015. Pollination of Specklinia by nectar-feeding Drosophila: the first reported case of a deceptive syndrome employing aggregation pheromones in Orchidaceae. Annals of Botany 116: 437-455.
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Lemaire B., Cauwenberghe J. van, Chimphango S., Stirton C., Honnay O., Smets E., Muasya A.M. 2015. Recombination and horizontal transfer of nodulation and ACC deaminase (acdS) genes within Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria nodulating legumes of the Cape Fynbos biome. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: fiv118.
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2014

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verstraete B., Peeters C., Wyk B. van, Smets E., Dessein S., Vandamme P. 2014. Intraspecific variation in Burkholderia caledonica: Europe vs. Africa and soil vs. endophytic isolates. Systematic And Applied Microbiology 37: 194-199.
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Vrijdaghs A., Flores-Olvera H., Smets E. 2014. Enigmatic floral structures in Alternanthera, Iresine, and Tidestromia (Gomphrenoideae, Amaranthaceae). A developmental homology assessment. Plant Ecology and Evolution 147: 49-66.
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Volkmar U., Smets E.F., Lenz H., Janssens S.B. 2014. Intron evolution in a phylogenetic perspective: Divergent trends in the two copies of the duplicated def gene in Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 52: 134-148.
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Merckx V.S.F.T., Smets E.F. 2014. Thismia americana, the 101st anniversary of a botanical mystery. International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 165-175.
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Aflitos S., Schijlen E., Finkers R., Smit S., Wang J., Zhang G., Li N., Mao L., Jong H. de, Bakker F., Gravendeel B., Breit T., Dirks R., Huits H., Struss D., Swanson-Wagner R., Leeuwen H. van, Ham R.C.H.J. van, Fito L., Guignier L., Sevilla M., Ellul P., Ganko E., Kapur A., Reclus E., Geus B. de, Geest H. van de, Lintel Hekkert B. te, Haarst J. van, Smits L., Koops A., Sanchez-Perez G., Heusden A.W. van, Visser R., Quan Z., Min J., Liao L., Wang X., Wang G., Yue Z., Yang X., Xu N., Schranz E., Smets E., Vos R.A., Rauwerda J., Ursem R., Schuit C., Kerns M., Berg J. van den, Vriezen W., Janssen A., Jahrmann T., Moquet F., Bonnet J., Peters S. 2014. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing. Plant Journal 80: 136-148.
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Chaowasku T., Thomas D.C., Ham R.W.J.M. van der, Smets E.F., Mols J.B., Chatrou L.W. 2014. A plastid DNA phylogeny of tribe Miliuseae: insigts into relationships and character evolution in one of the most recalcitrant major clades of Annonaceae. American Journal of Botany 101: 691-709.
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Hamann T., Müller A., Roos M., Sosef M., Smets E. 2014. Detailed mark-up of semi-monographic legacy taxonomic works using FlorML. Taxon 63: 377-393.
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Verstraete B., Moon H.-K., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2014. Orbicules in flowering plants: A phylogenetic perspective on their form and function. Botanical Review 80: 107-134.
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2013

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verstraete B., Lachenaud O., Smets E., Dessein S., Sonke B. 2013. Taxonomy and phylogenetics of Cuviera (Rubiaceae-Vanguerieae) and reinstatement of Globulostylis with the description of three new species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 173: 407-441.
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Merckx V.S.F.T., Kissling J., Hentrich H., Janssens S.B., Mennes C.B., Specht C.D., Smets E.F. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of the mycoheterotrophic genus Voyria and the implications for the biogeographic history of Gentianaceae. American Journal of Botany 100: 712-721.
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Tosh J., Dessein S., Buerki S., Groeninckx I., Mouly A., Bremer B., Smets E.F., Block P. de 2013. Evolutionary history of the Afro-Madagascan Ixora species (Rubiaceae): species diversification and distribution of key morphological traits inferred from dated molecular phylogenetic trees. Annals of Botany 112: 1723-1742.
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Verstraete B., Janssens S., Smets E., Dessein S. 2013. Symbiotic beta-Proteobacteria beyond Legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae. PLOS ONE 8: e55260.
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Verstraete B., Janssens S., Lemaire B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2013. Phylogenetic lineages in Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) associated with Burkholderia bacteria in sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Botany 100: 2380-2387.
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Scholz A., Rabaey D., Stein A., Cochard H., Smets E., Jansen S. 2013. The evolution and function of vessel and pit characters with respect to cavitation resistance across 10 Prunus species. Tree Physiology 33: 684-694.
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Lens F., Davin N., Smets E., Arco M. del 2013. Insular woodiness on the Canary Islands: a remarkable case of convergent evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 174: 992-1013.
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Mennes C.B., Smets E.F., Moses S.N., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2013. New insights in the long-debated evolutionary history of Triuridaceae (Pandanales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69: 994-1004.
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Chapters in books

Merckx V.S.F.T., Smets E.F., Specht C.D. 2013. Biogeography and Conservation. 103-156: Springer, New York.

2012

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Merckx V.S.F.T., Janssens S.B., Hynson N.A., Specht C.D., Bruns T.D., Smets E.F. 2012. Mycoheterotrophic interactions are not limited to a narrow phylogenetic range of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Molecular Ecology 21: 1524-1532.
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Janssens S.B., Smets E.F., Vrijdaghs A. 2012. Floral development of Hydrocera and Impatiens reveals evolutionary trends in the most early diverged lineages of the Balsaminaceae. Annals of Botany 109: 1285-1296.
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Appelhans M.S., Kessler P.J.A., Smets E., Razafimandimbison S.G., Janssens S.B. 2012. Age and historical biogeography of the pantropically distributed Spathelioideae (Rutaceae, Sapindales). Journal of Biogeography 39: 1235-1250.
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Lemaire B., Janssens S., Smets E., Dessein S. 2012. Endosymbiont Transmission Mode in Bacterial Leaf Nodulation as Revealed by a Population Genetic Study of Psychotria leptophylla. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 284-287.
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Janssens S.B., Wilson Y.S., Yuan Y.-M., Nagels A., Smets E.F., Huysmans S. 2012. A total evidence approach using palynological characters to infer the complex evolutionary history of the Asian Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Taxon 61: 355-367.

Vinckier S.A., Janssens S.B., Huysmans S., Vandevenne A., Smets E.F. 2012. Pollen ontogeny linked to tapetal cell maturation in Impatiens parviflora (Balsaminaceae). Grana 51: 10-24.
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Gehrke B., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E., Muasya A.M. 2012. Unisexual flowers as a robust synapomorphy in Cariceae (Cyperaceae)? Evidence for bisexual flowers in Schoenoxiphium. South African Journal of Botany 78: 150-158.
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Lemaire B., Oevelen S. van, Block P. de, Verstraete B., Smets E., Prinsen E., Dessein S. 2012. Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf nodules of Pavetta (Rubiaceae). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 62: 202-209.
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Lemaire B., Lachenaud O., Persson C., Smets E., Dessein S. 2012. Screening for leaf-associated endophytes in the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 81: 364-372.
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Lens F., Eeckhout S., Zwartjes R., Smets E., Janssens S.B. 2012. The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach. Where do we draw the line?. Annals of Botany 109: 783-799.
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Lens F., Smets E., Melzer S. 2012. Stem anatomy supports Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for insular woodiness. New Phytologist 193: 12-17.
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Chapters in books

Smets E. 2012. Prólogo, Voorwoord, Foreword.

2011

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lemaire B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Bacterial leaf symbiosis in Ardisia (Myrsinoideae, Primulaceae): molecular evidence for host specificity. Research in Microbiology 162: 528-534.
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Verstraete B., Groeninckx I., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2011. Phylogenetic signal of orbicules at family level: Rubiaceae as case study. Taxon 60: 742-757.

Janssens S.B., Dessein S., Smets E. 2011. Portrayal of Impatiens nzabiana (Balsaminaceae): a Morphological, Molecular and Biogeographic Study of a New Gabonese Species. Systematic Botany 36: 440-448.
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Lemaire B., Robbrecht E., Wyk B. van, Oevelen S. van, Verstraete B., Prinsen E., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Identification, origin, and evolution of leaf nodulating symbionts of Sericanthe (Rubiaceae). Journal of Microbiology 49: 935-941.
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Appelhans M.S., Smets E., Razafimandimbison S.G., Haevermans T., Marle E.J. van, Couloux A., Rabarison H., Randrianarivelojosia M., Kessler P.J.A. 2011. Phylogeny, evolutionary trends and classification of the Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade: morphological and molecular insights. Annals of Botany 107: 1259-1277.
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Flores-Olvera H., Vrijdaghs A., Ochoterena H., Smets E. 2011. The need to re-investigate the nature of homoplastic characters: an ontogenetic case study of the 'bracteoles' in Atripliceae (Chenopodiaceae). Annals of Botany 108: 847-865.
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Lemaire B., Huysmans S., Smets E., Merckx V. 2011. Rate accelerations in nuclear 18S rDNA of mycoheterotrophic and parasitic angiosperms. Journal of Plant Research 124: 561-576.
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Vrijdaghs A., Reynders M., Muasya A.M., Larridon I., Goetghebeur P., Smets E.F. 2011. Morphology and development of spikelets and flowers in Cyperus and Pycreus (Cyperaceae). Plant Ecology and Evolution 144: 44-63.
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Lemaire B., Vandamme P., Merckx V., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Bacterial Leaf Symbiosis in Angiosperms: Host Specificity without Co-Speciation. PLOS ONE 6: e24430.
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Hamann T., Smets E., Lens F. 2011. A comparison of paraffin and resin-based techniques used in bark anatomy. Taxon 60: 841-851.
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Verstraete B., Elst D. van, Steyn H., Wyk B. van, Lemaire B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Endophytic Bacteria in Toxic South African Plants: Identification, Phylogeny and Possible Involvement in Gousiekte. PLOS ONE 6: e19265.
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Jacobs B., Geuten K., Pyck N., Huysmans S., Jansen S., Smets E. 2011. Unraveling the Phylogeny of Heptacodium and Zabelia (Caprifoliaceae): An Interdisciplinary Approach. Systematic Botany 36: 231-252.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Roos M.C., Berendshohn W.G., Dessein S., Hamann T., Hoffmann N., Hovenkamp P., Janssen T., Kirkup D., Kok R. de, Sierra S.E.C., Smets E., Webb C., Welzen P.C. van 2011. e-Flora Malesiana: state of the art and perspectives. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 63: 189-195.

Meester L. de, Tienderen P. van, Werger M., Hector A., Wörheide G., Niemelä J., Aguilar A., Smets E., Godfray C., Sutherland W., Bauhaus J., Courchamp F., Gandini G., Koch M., Le Maho Y., Manuel M., Pawlowski J., Quéinnec E., Owens I., Keustermans L. 2011. Challenges for biodiversity research in Europe. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences 13: 83-100.

2010

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Jacobs B., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2010. Evolution and systematic value of fruit and seed characters in Adoxaceae (Dipsacales). Taxon 59: 850-866.

Jacobs B., Bell C., Smets E. 2010. Fruits and seeds of the Valeriana clade (Dipsacales): diversity and evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171: 421-434.
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Vrijdaghs A., Reynders M., Larridon I., Muasya A.M., Smets E., Goetghebeur P. 2010. Spikelet structure and development in Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae): a monopodial general model based on ontogenetic evidence. Annals of Botany 105: 555-571.
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Groeninckx I., Block P. de, Robbrecht E., Smets E.F., Dessein S. 2010. Amphistemon and Thamnoldenlandia, two new genera of Rubiaceae (Spermacoceae) endemic to Madagascar. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 447-472.
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Groeninckx I., Briggs M., Davis A., Block P. de, Robbrecht E., Smets E., Dessein S. 2010. A new herbaceous genus endemic to Madagascar: Phialiphora (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae). Taxon 59: 1815-1829.

Jacobs B., Pyck N., Smets E. 2010. Phylogeny of the Linnaea clade: Are Abelia and Zabelia closely related?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 741-752.
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Appelhans M.S., Smets E., Baas P., Kessler P.J.A. 2010. Cneorum (Rutaceae) in Cuba? The solution to a 150 year old mystery. Taxon 59: 1126-1134.

Moon H.-K., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2010. Phylogeny of tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae): The story of molecules and micromorphological characters. Taxon 59: 1065-1076.

Groeninckx I., Ochoterena H., Smets E., Dessein S. 2010. Molecular phylogenetic and morphological study of Kohautia (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae), with the recognition of the new genus Cordylostigma. Taxon 59: 1457-1471.

Boedeker C., Eggert A., Immers A., Smets E. 2010. Global Decline of and Threats to Aegagropila linnaei, with Special Reference to the Lake Ball Habit. BioScience 60: 187-198.
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Huysmans S., Verstraete B., Smets E., Chatrou L.W. 2010. Distribution of orbicules in Annonaceae mirrors evolutionary trend in angiosperms. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143: 199-211.
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Rabaey D., Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2010. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae. Taxon 59: 510-516.
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Razafimandimbison S.G., Appelhans M.S., Rabarison H., Haevermans T., Rakotondrafara A., Rakotonandrasana S.R., Ratsimbason M., Labat J.-N., Kessler P.J.A., Smets E., Cruaud C., Couloux A., Randrianarivelojosia M. 2010. Implications of a molecular phylogenetic study of the Malagasy genus Cedrelopsis and its relatives (Ptaeroxylaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 258-265.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Meester L. de, Tienderen P. van, Werger M., Hector A., Wörheide G., Niemelä J., Aguilar A., Smets E., Godfray C., Sutherland W., Bauhaus J., Courchamp F., Gandini G., Koch M., Le Maho Y., Manuel M., Pawlowski J., Quéinnec E., Owens I. 2010. Challenges for biodiversity research in Europe. Advice Paper 4: 1-18.

2009

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lens F., Endress M.E., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2009. Vessel grouping patterns in subfamilies Apocynoideae and Periplocoideae confirm phylogenetic value of wood structure within Apocynaceae. American Journal of Botany 96: 2168-2183.
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Viaene T., Vekemans D., Irish V.F., Geeraerts A., Huysmans S., Janssens S., Smets E., Geuten K. 2009. Pistillata-Duplications as a Mode for Floral Diversification in (Basal) Asterids. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 2627-2645.
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Muasya A.M., Vrijdaghs A., Simpson D.A., Chase M.W., Goetghebeur P., Smets E. 2009. What is a Genus in Cypereae: Phylogeny, Character Homology Assessment and Generic Circumscription in Cypereae. Botanical Review 75: 52-66.
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Moon H.-K., Hong S.-P., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2009. Micromorphology and Character Evolution of Nutlets in Tribe Mentheae (Nepetoideae, Lamiaceae). Systematic Botany 34: 760-776.
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Nagels A., Muasya A.M., Huysmans S., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E., Vinckier S. 2009. Palynological diversity and major evolutionary trends in Cyperaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 277: 117-142.
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Merckx V., Bakker F.T., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2009. Bias and conflict in phylogenetic inference of myco-heterotrophic plants: a case study in Thismiaceae. Cladistics 25: 64-77.
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Tosh J., Davis A.P., Dessein S., Block P., Huysmans S., Fay M.F., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2009. Phylogeny of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae) and its relationships with allied genera based on plastid DNA data: resurrection of the genus Empogona. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96: 194-213.
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Raes N., Mols J.B., Willemse L.P.M., Smets E.F. 2009. Georeferencing specimens by combining digitized maps with SRTM digital elevation data and satellite images: a Bornean case study. Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 54: 162-165.
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Groeninckx I., Block P. de, Rakotonasolo F., Smets E., Dessein S. 2009. Rediscovery of Malagasy Lathraeocarpa allows determination of its taxonomic position within Rubiaceae. Taxon 58: 209-226.

Janssens S.B., Knox E.B., Huysmans S., Smets E.F., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2009. Rapid radiation of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) during Pliocene and Pleistocene: Result of a global climate change. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 806-824.
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Jacobs B., Lens F., Smets E. 2009. Evolution of fruit and seed characters in the Diervilla and Lonicera clades (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacales). Annals of Botany 104: 253-276.
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Moon H.-K., Hong S.-P., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2009. Phylogenetic significance of leaf micromorphology and anatomy in the tribe Mentheae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 211-231.
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Vrijdaghs A., Muasya A.M., Goetghebeur P., Caris P., Nagels A., Smets E. 2009. A Floral Ontogenetic Approach to Questions of Homology within the Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae). Botanical Review 75: 30-51.
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Lens F., Groeninckx I., Smets E., Dessein S. 2009. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae–Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation?. Annals of Botany 103: 1049-1064.
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Groeninckx I., Dessein S., Ochoterena H., Person C., Motley T.J., Karehed J., Bremer B., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2009. Phylogeny of the herbaceous tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae) based on plastid DNA data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96: 109-132.
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Muasya A.M., Simpson D.A., Verboom G.A., Goetghebeur P., Naczi R.F.C., Chase M.W., Smets E. 2009. Phylogeny of Cyperaceae Based on DNA Sequence Data: Current Progress and Future Prospects. Botanical Review 75: 2-21.
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Janssens S.B., Knox E.B., Dessein S., Smets E.F. 2009. Impatiens msisimwanensis (Balsaminaceae): Description, pollen morphology and phylogenetic position of a new East African species. South African Journal of Botany 75: 104-109.
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Geeraerts A., Raeymaekers J.A.M., Vinckier S., Pletsers A., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2009. Systematic palynology in Ebenaceae with focus on Ebenoideae: Morphological diversity and character evolution. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153: 336-353.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Smets E., Pronk S. 2009. Nieuwe perspectieven voor systematisch onderzoek. Origin 5: 4-7.

Bininda-Emonds O., Bogdanowicz W., Borsch T., Delsuc F., Hassanin A., Jondelius U., Peterson G., Renner S., Savolainen V., Seberg O., Smets E., Vogler A. 2009. Assembling the Tree of Life in Europe (AToLE). Nature Precedings 2891: 1-9.

Chapters in books

Smets E. 2009. Streepjescodes van DNA.

2008

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lens F., Endress M.E., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2008. Wood anatomy of Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae): a search for meaningful non-DNA characters at the tribal level. American Journal of Botany 95: 1199-1215.
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Jacobs B., Donoghue M.J., Bouman F., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2008. Evolution and phylogenetic importance of endocarp and seed characters in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 409-431.
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Rabaey D., Lens F., Huysmans S., Smets E., Jansen S. 2008. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species. Protoplasma 233: 255-262.
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Moon H.-K., Vinckier S., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2008. Palynological evolutionary trends within the tribe Mentheae with special emphasis on subtribe Menthinae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 275: 93-108.
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Moon H.-K., Vinckier S., Walker J.B., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2008. A search for phylogenetically informative pollen characters in the subtribe Salviinae (Mentheae : Lamiaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 455-471.
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Nagels A., Muasya A. M., Huysmans S., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E., Vinckier S. 2008. Pollen diversity in Cyperaceae. South African Journal of Botany 74: 374-374.
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Moon H.-K., Vinckier S., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2008. Comparative pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Mentheae subtribe Nepetinae (Lamiaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 149: 174-186.
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Flores Olvera H., Smets E., Vrijdaghs A. 2008. Floral and inflorescence morphology and ontogeny in Beta vulgaris, with special emphasis on the ovary position. Annals of Botany 102: 643-651.
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Merckx V., Schols P., Geuten K., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in Nartheciaceae (Dioscoreales), with focus on pollen and orbicule morphology. Belgian Journal of Botany 141: 64-77.
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Merckx V., Chatrou L.W., Lemaire B., Sainge M.N., Huysmans S., Smets E.F. 2008. Diversification of myco-heterotrophic angiosperms: Evidence from Burmanniaceae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 178.
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Rabaey D., Huysmans S., Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2008. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: tori and pseudo-tori. IAWA Journal 29: 409-424.
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Janssens S.B., Viaene T., Huysmans S., Smets E.F., Geuten K.P. 2008. Selection on length mutations after frameshift can explain the origin and retention of the AP3/DEF-like paralogues in Impatiens. Journal of Molecular Evolution 66: 424-435.
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Lens F., Karehed J., Baas P., Jansen S., Rabaey D., Huysmans S., Hamann T., Smets E. 2008. The wood anatomy of the polyphyletic Icacinaceae s.l., and their relationships within asterids. Taxon 57: 525-552.
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Tosh J., Block P. de, Davis A.P., Dessein S., Robbrecht E., Smets E.F. 2008. The tribal placement of the monospecific tropical African genus Petitiocodon (Rubiaceae) based on molecular data and morphology. Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 53: 549-565.
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Chapters in books

Smets E. 2008. Kiezen voor Systematiek.

Smets E. 2008. Preface.

2007

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lens F., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2007. A search for phylogenetically informative wood characters within Lecythidaceae s.l.. American Journal of Botany 94: 483-502.
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Groeninckx I., Vrijdaghs A., Huysmans S., Smets E., Dessein S. 2007. Floral ontogeny of the afro-madagascan genus Mitrasacmopsis with comments on the development of superior ovaries in rubiaceae. Annals of Botany 100: 41-49.
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Lens F., Schonenberger J., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2007. The role of wood anatomy in phylogeny reconstruction of Ericales. Cladistics 23: 229-254.
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Geuten K., Massingham T., Darius P., Smets E., Goldman N. 2007. Experimental design criteria in phylogenetics: Where to add taxa. Systematic Biology 56: 609-622.
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Muasya A.M., Simpson D.A., Smets E. 2007. Isolepis levynsiana, a new name for Cyperus tenellus (Cyperaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 17: 59-59.
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Janssens S., Geuten K., Viaene T., Yuan Y.-M., Song Y., Smets E. 2007. Phylogenetic utility of the AP3/DEF K-domain and its molecular evolution in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 225-239.
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Verellen J., Dessein S., Razafimandimbison S.G., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2007. Pollen morphology of the tribes Naucleeae and Hymenodictyeae (Rubiaceae-Cinchonoideae) and its phylogenetic significance. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 153: 329-341.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Gravendeel B., Baas P., Smets E. 2007. Herbaria in Nederland: van blijvend belang voor het behoud van biodiversiteit. Gewina: Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Techniek 30: 153-161.

Edited books

Smets E. (eds.). 2007. Algemene Plantkunde: Morfologie en Fysiologie. 518 p. Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Chapters in books

Kessler P.J.A., Mols J.B. 2007. Annonaceae of Papua. 349-354: ISBN 0794603939.

Lens F., Jacobs B., Jansen S., Smets E. 2007. Practicumhandleiding Morfologie en Anatomie. III-94: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Smets E., Lens F. 2007. Cursustekst Fysiologie. III-120: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Smets E., Lens F. 2007. Figuren Morfologie. Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Smets E., Lens F. 2007. Cursustekst Morfologie. IV-114: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Caris P., Jacobs B., Smets E. 2007. Practicumhandleiding Fysiologie. I-28: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

2006

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Vaes E., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E.F., Dessein S. 2006. Elaborate petals in Australian Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) species: Morphology, ontogeny and function. Annals of Botany 98: 1167-1178.
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Vrijdaghs A., Goetghebeur P., Smets E., Muasya A.M. 2006. The floral scales in Hellmuthia (Cyperaceae, Cyperoideae) and Paramapania (Cyperaceae, Mapanioideae): An ontogenetic study. Annals of Botany 98: 619-630.
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Muasya A.M., Simpson D.A., Smets E. 2006. Isolepis tenella, a new combination in Cyperaceae. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 16: 89-90.
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Caris P., Smets E., Coster K., Decraene L.P.R. 2006. Floral ontogeny of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Rutaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 257: 223-232.
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Caris P.L., Geuten K.P., Janssens S.B., Smets E.F. 2006. Floral development in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). American Journal of Botany 93: 1-14.
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Rabaey D., Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2006. The micromorphology of pit membranes in tracheary elements of Ericales: New records of tori or pseudo-tori?. Annals of Botany 98: 943-951.
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Merckx V., Schols P., Maas-van de Kamer H., Maas P., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2006. Phylogeny and evolution of Burmanniaceae (Dioscoreales) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data. American Journal of Botany 93: 1684-1698.
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Dessein S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2006. A new Heterophyllous Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae) from the Marungu highlands, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 16: 231-234.
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Geuten K., Becker A., Kaufmann K., Caris P., Janssens S., Viaene T., Theissen G., Smets E. 2006. Petaloidy and petal identity MADS-box genes in the balsaminoid genera Impatiens and Marcgravia. Plant Journal 47: 501-518.
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Petanidou T., Laere A. van, Ellis W.N., Smets E. 2006. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?. Oikos 115: 155-169.
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Vinckier S., Cadot P., Grote M., Ceuppens J.L., Smets E. 2006. Orbicules do not significantly contribute to the allergenic micro-aerosol emitted from birch trees. Allergy 61: 1243-1244.
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Janssens S., Geuten K., Yuan Y.M., Song Y., Kupfer P., Smets E. 2006. Phylogenetics of impatiens and Hydrocera (Balsaminaceae) using chloroplast atpB-rbcL Spacer sequences. Systematic Botany 31: 171-180.
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2005

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lens F., Jansen S., Caris P., Serlet L., Smets E. 2005. Comparative wood anatomy of the primuloid clade (Ericales s.I.). Systematic Botany 30: 163-183.
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Schols P., Wilkin P., Furness C.A., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2005. Pollen evolution in yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae). Systematic Botany 30: 750-758.
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Wilkin P., Schols P., Chase M.W., Chayamarit K., Furness C.A., Huysmans S., Rakotonasolo F., Smets E., Thapyai C. 2005. A plastid gene phylogeny of the yam genus, Dioscorea: Roots, fruits and Madagascar. Systematic Botany 30: 736-749.
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Janssens S., Lens F., Dressler S., Geuten K., Smets E., Vinckier S. 2005. Palynological variation in balsaminoid Ericales. II. Balsaminaceae, Tetrameristaceae, Pellicieraceae and general conclusions. Annals of Botany 96: 1061-1073.
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Dessein S., Ochoterena H., Block P. de, Lens F., Robbrecht E., Schols P., Smets E., Vinckier S., Huysmans S. 2005. Palynological characters and their phylogenetic signal in Rubiaceae. Botanical Review 71: 354-414.
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Lens F., Dressler S., Jansen S., Evelghem L. van, Smets E. 2005. Relationships within balsaminoid ericales: A wood anatomical approach. American Journal of Botany 92: 941-953.
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Vrijdaghs A., Caris P., Goetghebeur P., Smets E. 2005. Floral ontogeny in Scirpus, Eriophorum and Dulichium (Cyperaceae), with special reference to the perianth. Annals of Botany 95: 1199-1209.
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Vinckier S., Cadot P., Smets E. 2005. The manifold characters of orbicules: structural diversity, systematic significance, and vectors for allergens. Grana 44: 300-307.
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Dessein S., Andersson L., Geuten K., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2005. Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax (Rubiaceae): sister taxa excluded from Spermacoceae s.s., featuring a remarkable case of convergent evolution. Taxon 54: 91-107.
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Lens F., Dressler S., Vinckier S., Janssens S., Dessein S., Evelghem L. Van, Smets E. 2005. Palynological variation in balsaminoid Ericales. I. Marcgraviaceae. Annals of Botany 96: 1047-1060.
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Vinckier S., Smets E. 2005. A histological study of microsporogenesis in Tarenna gracilipes (Rubiaceae). Grana 44: 30-44.
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Dessein S., Harwood R., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2005. Pollen of the Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) species from the Northern Territory of Australia: morphology and taxonomic significance. Australian Systematic Botany 18: 367-382.
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Schols P., Furness C.A., Merckx V., Wilkin P., Smets E. 2005. Comparative pollen development in Dioscoreales. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166: 909-924.
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Vrijdaghs A., Goetghebeur P., Muasya A.M., Caris P., Smets E. 2005. Floral ontogeny in Ficinia and Isolepis (Cyperaceae), with focus on the nature and origin of the gynophore. Annals of Botany 96: 1247-1264.
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2004

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2004. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 161-179.
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Verellen J., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2004. The remarkable genus Coptosapelta (Rubiaceae): pollen and orbicule morphology and systematic implications. Journal of Plant Research 117: 57-68.
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Schols P., Es K., D'hondt C., Merckx V., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2004. A new enzyme-based method for the treatment of fragile pollen grains collected from herbarium material. Taxon 53: 777-782.

Jansen S., Choat B., Vinckier S., Lens F., Schols P., Smets E. 2004. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera. New Phytologist 163: 51-59.
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Jansen S., Baas P., Gasson P., Lens F., Smets E. 2004. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 8833-8837.
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D'Hondt C., Schols P., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2004. Systematic relevance of pollen and orbicule characters in the tribe Hillieae (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 146: 303-321.
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Yuan Y.M., Song Y., Geuten K., Rahelivololona E., Wohlhauser S., Fischer E., Smets E., Kupfer P. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of Balsaminaceae inferred from ITS sequences. Taxon 53: 391-403.
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Geuten K., Smets E., Schols P., Yuan Y.M., Janssens S., Kupfer P., Pyck N. 2004. Conflicting phylogenies of balsaminoid families and the polytomy in Ericales: combining data in a Bayesian framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31: 711-729.
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Pyck N., Smets E. 2004. On the systematic position of Triplostegia (Dipsacales): A combined molecular and morphological approach. Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 125-139.
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Lens F., Luteyn J.L., Smets E., Jansen S. 2004. Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of Vaccinioideae (Ericaceae s.l.). Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 199: 309-319.
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Caris P.L., Smets E.F. 2004. A floral ontogenetic study on the sister group relationship between the genus Samolus (Primulaceae) and the Theophrastaceae. American Journal of Botany 91: 627-643.
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Decraene L.P.R., Hong S.P., Smets E.F. 2004. What is the taxonomic status of polygonella? Evidence of floral morphology. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91: 320-345.
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Vrijdaghs A., Goetghebeur P., Muasya A., Smets E., Caris P. 2004. The nature of the perianth in Fuirena (Cyperaceae). South African Journal of Botany 70: 587-594.

Jansen S., Watanabe T., Caris P., Geuten K., Lens F., Pyck N., Smets E. 2004. The distribution and phylogeny of aluminium accumulating plants in the ericales. Plant Biology 6: 498-505.
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Lens F., Kron K.A., Luteyn J.L., Smets E., Jansen S. 2004. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91: 566-592.
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Choat B., Jansen S., Zwieniecki M.A., Smets E., Holbrook N.M. 2004. Changes in pit membrane porosity due to deflection and stretching: the role of vestured pits. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 1569-1575.
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Chapters in books

Pyck N., Geuten K. Smets E. 2004. Combining two chloroplast genes with morphological traits – A case study in Dipsacales. 1-39:

2003

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Dessein S., Ntore S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2003. Pollen and seeds reveal that Spermacoce thymoidea s.l. (African Rubiaceae, Spermacoceae) represents three endemic or disjunct species from the Zambezian high plateaus. Systematic Botany 28: 130-144.

Jansen S., Watanabe T., Dessein S., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2003. A comparative study of metal levels in leaves of some Al-accumulating Rubiaceae. Annals of Botany 91: 657-663.
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Jansen S., Baas P., Gasson P., Smets E. 2003. Vestured pits: Do they promote safer water transport?. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164: 405-413.

Huysmans S., Dessein S., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2003. Pollen morphology of NW European representatives confirms monophyly of Rubieae (Rubiaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 127: 219-240.
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Vinckier S., Smets E. 2003. Morphological and ultrastructural diversity of orbicules in gentianaceae. Annals of Botany 92: 657-672.
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Schols P., Furness C.A., Wilkin P., Smets E., Cielen V., Huysmans S. 2003. Pollen morphology of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae) and its relation to systematics. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 143: 375-390.

Lens F., Gasson P., Smets E., Jansen S. 2003. Comparative wood anatomy of epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l). Annals of Botany 91: 835-856.
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Ntore S., Robbrecht E., Smets E., Dessein S. 2003. Revision of Pauridiantha paucinervis and its closest relatives (Rubiaceae, Pauridiantheae). Belgian Journal of Botany 136: 73-90.

Vermoere M., Vanhecke L., Waelkens M., Smets E. 2003. Modern and ancient olive stands near Sagalassos (south-west Turkey) and reconstruction of the ancient agricultural landscape in two valleys. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 12: 217-236.

Chapters in books

Smets E., Pyck N. 2003. Ericales (Rhododendron).
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Jansen S., Smets E., Haridasan M. 2003. Aluminum accumulating plants. 11-13:

2002

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Vermoere M., Thuyne T. van, Six S., Vanhecke L., Waelkens M., Paulissen E., Smets E. 2002. Late Holocene local vegetation dynamics in the marsh of Gravgaz (southwest Turkey). Journal of Paleolimnology 27: 429-451.

Pyck N., Lysebetten A. van, Stessens J., Smets E. 2002. The phylogeny of Patrinieae sensu Graebner (Valerianaceae) revisited: additional evidence from ndhF sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 233: 29-46.

Jansen S., Broadley M.R., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2002. Aluminum hyperaccumulation in angiosperms: A review of its phylogenetic significance. Botanical Review 68: 235-269.

Decraene L.P.R., Yang T.Y.A., Schols P., Smets E.F. 2002. Floral anatomy and systematics of Bretschneidera (Bretschneideraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139: 29-45.

Caris P., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E., Clinckemaillie D. 2002. The uncertain systematic position of Symplocos (Symplocaceae): Evidence from a floral ontogenetic study. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163: 67-74.

Dessein S., Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2002. Pollen of African Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae) - Morphology and evolutionary aspects. Grana 41: 69-89.

Decraene L.P.R., Linder H.P., Smets E.F. 2002. Ontogeny and evolution of the flowers of South African Restionaceae with special emphasis on the gynoecium. Plant Systematics and Evolution 231: 225-258.

Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Beeckman H., Smets E. 2002. A survey of the systematic wood anatomy of the Rubiaceae. IAWA Journal 23: 1-67.

Vinckier S., Smets E. 2002. Morphology, ultrastructure and typology of orbicules in Loganiaceae s.l. and related genera, in relation to systematics. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 119: 161-189.

Schols P., Dessein S., D'Hondt C., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2002. Carnoy: a new digital measurement tool for palynology. Grana 41: 124-126.

Dessein S., Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2002. A new species of Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) from the Manika high plateau (Katanga; RD Congo). Nordic Journal of Botany 22: 513-523.

Vinckier S., Smets E. 2002. Systematic importance of orbicule diversity in Gentianales. Grana 41: 158-182.

Vermoere M., Bottema S., Vanhecke L., Waelkens M., Paulissen E., Smets E. 2002. Palynological evidence for late-Holocene human occupation recorded in two wetlands in SW Turkey. Holocene 12: 569-584.
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Vinckier S., Smets E. 2002. Morphological and ultrastructural diversity of orbicules in relation to evolutionary tendencies in Apocynaceae s.l.. Annals of Botany 90: 647-662.
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Jansen S., Watanabe T., Smets E. 2002. Aluminium accumulation in leaves of 127 species in Melastomataceae, with comments on the order Myrtales. Annals of Botany 90: 53-64.
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Chapters in books

Bouman F., Cobb L., Devente N., Goethals V., Maas P.J.M., Smets E. 2002. The seeds of Gentianaceae. 498-572:

Mészáros S., Laet J. de, Goethals V., Smets E., Nilsson S. 2002. Cladistics of Gentianaceae: a morphological approach. 310-376:

Smets E. 2002. De parabel van de roos en de brandnetel: Naar een nieuwe indeling van de bloemplanten. 211-230:

2001

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Dessein S., Jansen S., Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2001. A morphological and anatomical survey of Virectaria (African Rubiaceae), with a discussion of its taxonomic position. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 137: 1-29.

Dessein S., Andersson L., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2001. Hekistocarpa (Rubiaceae): a member of an emended tribe Virectarieae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 229: 59-78.

Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2001. Vegetative anatomy and affinities of Dirachma socotrana (Dirachmaceae). Systematic Botany 26: 231-241.

Vinckier S., Smets E. 2001. A survey of the presence and morphology of orbicules in European allergenic angiosperms. Background information for allergen research. Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 79: 757-766.

Decraene L.P.R., Linder P.H., Smets E.F. 2001. Floral ontogenetic evidence in support of the Willdenowia clade of South African Restionaceae. Journal of Plant Research 114: 329-342.

Decraene L.P.R., Linder H.P., Dlamini T., Smets E.F. 2001. Evolution and development of floral diversity of Melianthaceae, an enigmatic southern African family. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162: 59-82.

Vermoere M., Vanhecke L., Waelkens M., Smets E. 2001. Modern pollen studies in the territory of Sagalassos (Southwest Turkey) and their use in the interpretation of a Late Holocene pollen diagram. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 114: 29-+.

Jansen S., Baas P., Smets E. 2001. Vestured pits: their occurrence and systematic importance in eudicots. Taxon 50: 135-167.

Schols P., Furness C.A., Wilkin P., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2001. Morphology of pollen and orbicules in some Dioscorea species and its systematic implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 295-311.
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Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 2001. Floral developmental evidence for the systematic relationships of Tropaeolum (Tropaeolaceae). Annals of Botany 88: 879-892.

Jansen S., Lens F., Ntore S., Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2001. Contributions to the wood anatomy of the Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Journal of Plant Research 114: 269-289.
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Vinckier S., Smets E. 2001. The potential role of orbicules as a vector of allergens. Allergy 56: 1129-1136.

Piesschaert F., Jansen S., Jaimes I., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2001. Morphology, anatomy, and taxonomic position of Pagameopsis (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). Brittonia 53: 490-504.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 2001. Staminodes: Their morphological and evolutionary significance. Botanical Review 67: 351-402.

Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2001. Patterns in pyrenes: the systematic significance of pyrene morphology in Chassalia (Rubiaceae-Psychotrieae) and related genera. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 196: 121-131.

El-Ghazaly G., Huysmans S., Smets E.F. 2001. Pollen development of Rondeletia odorata (Rubiaceae). American Journal of Botany 88: 14-30.

2000

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Lens F., Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2000. Wood anatomy of the Vanguerieae (Ixoroideae - Rubiaceae), with special emphasis on some geofrutices. IAWA Journal 21: 443-455.
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Jansen S., Dessein S., Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2000. Aluminium accumulation in leaves of Rubiaceae: Systematic and phylogenetic implications. Annals of Botany 85: 91-101.

Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Beeckman H., Smets E. 2000. Aluminium accumulation in Rubiaceae: An additional character for the delimitation of the subfamily Rubioideae?. IAWA Journal 21: 197-212.

Vermoere M., Vanhecke L., Waelkens M., Smets E. 2000. A comparison between modern pollen spectra of moss cushions and Cundill pollen traps - Implications for the interpretation of fossil pollen data from Southwest Turkey. Grana 39: 146-158.

Petanidou T., Goethals V., Smets E. 2000. Nectary structure of Labiatae in relation to their nectar secretion and characteristics in a Mediterranean shrub community - Does flowering time matter?. Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 103-118.

Jansen S., Baas P., Smets E 2000. Vestured pits in Malvales s.l.: a character with taxonomic significance hidden in the secondary xylem. Taxon 49: 169-182.

Huysmans S., El-Ghazaly G., Smets E. 2000. Orbicules: still a well-hidden secret of the anther. Wenner-Gren International Series 77: 201-212.

Piesschaert F., Huysmans S., Jaimes I., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2000. Morphological evidence for an extended tribe - Coccocypseleae (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). Plant Biology 2: 536-546.

Decraene L.P.R., Hong S.P., Smets E. 2000. Systematic significance of fruit morphology and anatomy in tribes Persicarieae and Polygoneae (Polygonaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 134: 301-337.

Caris P., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E., Clinckemaillie D. 2000. Floral development of three Maesa species, with special emphasis on the position of the genus within Primulales. Annals of Botany 86: 87-97.

Jansen S., Smets E. 2000. Morphology, distribution and systematic importance of vestures in the Gentianales. Wenner-Gren International Series 77: 277-296.

Dessein S., Scheltens A., Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2000. Pollen morphological survey of Pentas (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae) and its closest allies. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 112: 189-205.

Jansen S., Piesschaert F., Smets E. 2000. Wood anatomy of Elaeagnaceae, with comments on vestured pits, helical thickenings and systematic relationships. American Journal of Botany 87: 20-28.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E., Clinckemaillie D. 2000. Floral ontogeny and anatomy in Koelreuteria with special emphasis on monosymmetry and septal cavities. Plant Systematics and Evolution 223: 91-107.

Vermoere M., Smets E., Waelkens M., Vanhaverbeke H., Librecht I., Paulissen E., Vanhecke L. 2000. Late Holocene environmental change and the record of human impact at Gravgaz near Sagalassos, Southwest Turkey. Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 571-595.

Decraene L.P.R., Linder H.P., Smets E.F. 2000. The questionable relationship of Montinia (Montiniaceae): Evidence from a floral ontogenetic and anatomical study. American Journal of Botany 87: 1408-1424.

Lens F., Jansen S., Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2000. Pollen morphological variation in Vanguerieae (Ixoroideae Rubiaceae). Grana 39: 90-102.
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Vinckier S., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2000. Morphology and ultrastructure of orbicules in the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 108: 151-174.

Pyck N., Smets E. 2000. A search for the phylogenetic position of the seven-son flower (Heptacodium, Dipsacales): combining molecular and morphological evidence. Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 185-199.

Piesschaert F., Andersson L., Jansen S., Dessein S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2000. Searching for the taxonomic position of the African genus Colletoecema (Rubiaceae): morphology and anatomy compared to an rps16-intron analysis of the Rubioideae. Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 78: 288-304.

Jansen S., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 2000. On the wood and stem anatomy of Monococcus echinophorus (Phytolaccaceae s.l.). Systematics and Geography of Plants 70: 171-179.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 2000. Floral development of Galopina tomentosa with a discussion of sympetaly and placentation in the Rubiaceae. Systematics and Geography of Plants 70: 155-170.

Piesschaert F., Smets E. 2000. Catholic University of Leuven donates main part of herbarium LV to BR. Taxon 49: 130.

Chapters in books

Schroyen K., Vermoere M., Librecht I., Degryse P., Muchez Ph., Viaene W., Smets E., Paulissen E., Keppens E., Waelkens M. 2000. Preliminary study of travertine deposits in the vicinity of Sagalassos: petrography, geochemistry, geomorphology and palynology. 757-781:

1999

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Decraene L.P.R., Volgin S.A., Smets E.F. 1999. The floral development of Pleuropetalum darwinii, an anomalous member of the Amaranthaceae. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 194: 189-199.

Vermoere M., Degryse P., Vanhecke L., Muchez P., Paulissen E., Smets E., Waelkens M. 1999. Pollen analysis of two travertine sections in Baskoy (southwestern Turkey): implications for environmental conditions during the early Holocene. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 105: 93-+.

Waelkens M., Paulissen E., Vermoere M., Degryse P., Celis D., Schroyen K., Cupere B. de, Librecht I., Nackaerts K., Vanhaverbeke H., Viaene W., Muchez P., Ottenburgs R., Deckers S., Neer W. van, Smets E., Govers G., Verstraeten G., Steegen A., Cauwenberhs K. 1999. Man and environment in the territory of Sagalassos, a classical city in SW Turkey. Quaternary Science Reviews 18: 697-709.

Laet J. de, Smets E. 1999. Data decisiveness, missing entries, and the DD index. Cladistics 15: 25-37.

Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Poulsen A.D., Smets E. 1999. Pyrene and pollen observations in the pantropical genus Geophila (Rubiaceae-Psychotrieae). Nordic Journal of Botany 19: 93-100.

Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Delprete P., Smets E. 1999. Pollen morphological support for the Catesbaeeae-Chiococceae-Exostema-complex (Rubiaceae). Grana 38: 325-338.

Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Poulsen A.D., Smets E. 1999. The tropical African Geophila ingens (Rubiaceae-Psychotrieae) reinvestigated. Nordic Journal of Botany 19: 87-92.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1999. Similarities in floral ontogeny and anatomy between the genera Francoa (Francoaceae) and Greyia (Greyiaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 160: 377-393.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1999. The floral development and anatomy of Carica papaya (Caricaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 77: 582-598.

Piesschaert F., Jansen S., Huysmans S., Smets E., Robbrecht E 1999. Chassalia petitiana (Rubiaceae-Psychotrieae), an overlooked epiphytic species hidden in the African canopy. Systematic Botany 24: 315-322.

Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1999. Chassalia subcordatifolia, a new combination in African Rubiaceae (Rubioideae, Psychotrieae). Systematics and Geography of Plants 69: 189-194.

Pyck N., Roels P., Smets E. 1999. Tribal relationships in Caprifoliaceae: evidence from a cladistic analysis using ndhF sequences. Systematics and Geography of Plants 69: 145-159.

Stoffelen P., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1999. A new species of Coffea (Rubiaceae) from central Africa, with notes on tentative other taxa. Systematics and Geography of Plants 69: 119-124.

Chapters in books

Piesschaert F., Assche J. van, Smets E. 1999. Biogeochemische cycli. 21 17-28:

1998

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Jansen S., Kitin P., Pauw H. de, Idris M., Beeckman H., Smets E. 1998. Preparation of wood specimens for transmitted light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Belgian Journal of Botany 131: 41-49.

Decraene L.P.R., Laet J. de, Smets E.F. 1998. Floral development and anatomy of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae): What is the evidence for a capparalean or sapindalean affinity?. Annals of Botany 82: 273-284.

Jansen S., Smets E. 1998. Vestured pits in some woody Gentianaceae. IAWA Journal 19: 35-42.

Laet J. de, Smets E. 1998. On the TTSC-FTSC formulation of standard parsimony. Cladistics 14: 239-248.

Laet J. de, Smets E. 1998. On the three-taxon approach to parsimony analysis. Cladistics 14: 363-381.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1998. Notes on the evolution of androecial organisation in the magnoliophytina (angiosperms). Botanica Acta 111: 77-86.

Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1998. A collapsed tribe revisited: pollen morphology of the Isertieae (Cinchonoideae-Rubiaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 104: 85-113.

Jansen S., Smets E., Baas P. 1998. Vestures in woody plants: A review. IAWA Journal 19: 347-382.

Decraene L.P.R., Roels P., Smets E.F., Backlund A. 1998. The floral development and floral anatomy of Chrysosplenium alternifolium, an unusual member of the Saxifragaceae. Journal of Plant Research 111: 573-580.

Huysmans S., El-Ghazaly G., Smets E. 1998. Orbicules in angiosperms: Morphology, function, distribution, and relation with tapetum types. Botanical Review 64: 240-272.

Rutishauser R., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E., Mendoza-Heuer I. 1998. Theligonum cynocrambe: Developmental morphology of a peculiar rubiaceous herb. Plant Systematics and Evolution 210: 1-24.

Hong S.P., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1998. Systematic significance of tepal surface morphology in tribes Persicarieae and Polygoneae (Polygonaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 127: 91-116.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F., Vanvinckenroye P. 1998. Pseudodiplostemony, and its implications for the evolution of the androecium in the Caryophyllaceae. Journal of Plant Research 111: 25-43.

1997

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Piesschaert F., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1997. Dialypetalanthus fuscescens Kuhlm (Dialypetalanthaceae): The problematic taxonomic position of an Amazonian endemic. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 84: 201-223.

Huysmans S., El-Ghazaly G., Nilsson S., Smets E. 1997. Systematic value of tapetal orbicules: A preliminary survey of the Cinchonoideae (Rubiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 75: 815-826.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1997. Evidence for carpel multiplications in the Capparaceae. Belgian Journal of Botany 130: 59-67.

Stoffelen P., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1997. Adapted to the rain forest floor: A remarkable new dwarf Coffea (Rubiaceae) from Lower Guinea (tropical Africa). Taxon 46: 37-47.

Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Beeckman H., Smets E. 1997. Comparative wood anatomy of African Coffeeae (Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae). Belgian Journal of Botany 130: 47-58.

Decraene L.P.R., Vanvinckenroye P., Smets E.F. 1997. A study of floral morphological diversity in Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae) based on early floral ontogeny. International Journal of Plant Sciences 158: 57-72.

Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Beeckman H., Smets E. 1997. Wood anatomy of the predominantly African representatives of the tribe Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). IAWA Journal 18: 169-196.

Roels P., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1997. A floral ontogenetic investigation of the Hydrangeaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 17: 235-254.

Vanvinckenroye P.F., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1997. The floral development of Monococcus echinophorus (Phytolaccaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 75: 1941-1950.

Stoffelen P., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1997. Pollen morphology of Coffea and Psilanthus (Rubiaceae-Coffeeae), mainly from Africa. Grana 36: 313-327.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1997. A floral ontogenetic study of some species of Capparis and Boscia, with special emphasis on the androecium. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 119: 231-255.

1996

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Petanidou T., Smets E. 1996. Does temperature stress induce nectar secretion in Mediterranean plants?. New Phytologist 133: 513-518.

Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1996. The systematic value of endexine ornamentation in some Psychotrieae pollen (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). Grana 35: 129-137.

Decraene L.P.R., DeLaet J., Smets E.F. 1996. Morphological studies in Zygophyllaceae .2. The floral development and vascular anatomy of Peganum harmala. American Journal of Botany 83: 201-215.

Jansen S., Robbrecht E., Beeckman H., Smets E. 1996. Gaertnera and Pagamea: Genera within the Psychotrieae or constituting the tribe Gaertnereae? A wood anatomical and palynological approach. Botanica Acta 109: 466-476.

Meszaros S., Laet J. de, Smets E. 1996. Phylogeny of temperate gentianaceae: A morphological approach. Systematic Botany 21: 153-168.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1996. The floral development of Neurada procumbens L (Neuradaceae) (vol 44, pg 439, 1995) - correction. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 45: 228-241.

Roels P., Smets E. 1996. A floral ontogenetic study in the dipsacales. International Journal of Plant Sciences 157: 203-218.

Petanidou T., VanLaere A.J., Smets E. 1996. Change in floral nectar components from fresh to senescent flowers of Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae), a nocturnally flowering Mediterranean shrub. Plant Systematics and Evolution 199: 79-92.

Vanvinckenroye P., Smets E. 1996. Floral ontogeny of five species of Talinum and of related taxa (Portulacaceae). Journal of Plant Research 109: 387-402.

Stoffelen P., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1996. The ''arabica-congensis complex'': Five Coffea-species with a problematic delimitation. Opera Botanica Belgica 7: 237-248.

Stoffelen P., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1996. A revision of Corynanthe and Pausinystalia (African Rubiaceae-Coptosapelteae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 287-326.

Laet J. de, Smets E. 1996. A commentary on the circumscription and evolution of the order Gentianales, with special emphasis on the position of the Rubiaceae. Opera Botanica Belgica 7: 11-18.

Stoffelen P., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1996. Coffea (Rubiaceae) in Cameroon: A new species and a nomen recognized as species. Belgian Journal of Botany 129: 71-76.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1996. The morphological variation and systematic value of stamen pairs in the Magnoliatae. Feddes Repertorium 107: 1-17.

1995

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1995. The floral development of Neurada procumbens L. (Neuradaceae). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 44: 439-451.

Petanidou T., Smets E. 1995. The potential of marginal lands for bees and apiculture - nectar secretion in Mediterranean shrublands. Apidologie 26: 39-52.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F., Clinckemaillie D. 1995. The floral development and floral anatomy of Coris monspeliensis. Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 73: 1687-1698.

Laet J. de, Clinckemaillie D., Jansen S., Smets E. 1995. Floral ontogeny in the Plumbaginaceae. Journal of Plant Research 108: 289-304.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1995. Evolution of the androecium in the Ranunculiflorae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 9: 63-70.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1995. The distribution and systematic relevance of the androecial character oligomery. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 118: 193-247.

1994

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Laet J. de, Smets E. 1994. An introduction to cladism. Belgian Journal of Botany 127: 207-229.

Huysmans S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 1994. Are the genera Hallea and Mitragyna (Rubiaceae coptosapelteae) pollen morphologically distinct. Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 39: 321-340.

Roels P., Smets E. 1994. A comparative floral ontogenic study between Adoxa moschatellina and Sambucus ebulus. Belgian Journal of Botany 127: 157-170.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1994. Merosity in flowers - definition, origin, and taxonomic significance. Plant Systematics and Evolution 191: 83-104.

1993

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1993. Dedoublement revisited: towards a renewed interpretation of the androecium of the Magnoliophytina. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 103-124.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1993. The distribution and systematic relevance of the androecial character polymery. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 285-350.

Decraene L.P.R., Clinkemaillie D., Smets E. 1993. Stamen-petal complexes in Magnoliatae. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 62: 97-112.

Vanvinckenroye P., Cresens E., Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1993. A comparative floral developmental study in Pisonia, Bougainvillea and Mirabilis (Nyctaginaceae) with special emphasis on the gynoecium and floral nectaries. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 62: 69-96.

1992

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Clinkemaillie D., Smets E.F. 1992. Floral similarities between Plumbaginaceae and Primulaceae - systematic significance. Belgian Journal of Botany 125: 151-153.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1992. An updated interpretation of the Androecium of the Fumariaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany - Revue Canadienne de Botanique 70: 1765-1776.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1992. Complex polyandry in the Magnoliatae: definition, distribution and systematic value. Nordic Journal of Botany 12: 621-649.

Cresens E., Smets E. 1992. On the character "carpel-form". Trends in the development of the Magnoliatae pistil. Candollea 47: 373-390.

1991

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1991. Androecium and floral nectaries of Harungana madagascariensis (Clusiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 178: 179-194.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1991. The floral nectaries of Polygonum s.l. and related genera (Persicarieae and Polygoneae) - position, morphological nature and semophylesis. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 185: 165-185.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1991. The impact of receptacular growth on Polyandry in the Myrtales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 105: 257-269.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E.F. 1991. Morphological studies in Zygophyllaceae .1. The floral development and vascular anatomy of Nitraria retusa. American Journal of Botany 78: 1438-1448.

Chapters in books

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E., Assche J. van 1991. The Low Countries - Dune plants and fertile meadows. 116-123:

1990

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1990. The floral development of Popowia whitei (Annonaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 10: 411-420.

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1990. The systematic relationship between Begoniaceae and Papaveraceae: a comparative study of their floral development. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 60: 229-273.

Chapters in books

Cresens E., Smets E. 1990. The characterization of the character "carpel form" - A renewed view of the gynoecium of the Magnoliatae. 125-154:

1989

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Cresens E., Smets E. 1989. The carpel - a problem child of floral morphology and evolution. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 59: 377-409.

1988

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Smets E.F., Cresens E.M. 1988. Types of floral nectaries and the concepts character and character-state - a reconsideration. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 37: 121-128.

Smets E. 1988. La présence des "nectaria persistentia" chez les Magnoliophytina (Angiospermes). Candollea 43: 709-716.

1987

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Decraene L.P.R., Smets E. 1987. The distribution and the systematic relevance of the androecial characters oligomery and polymery in the Magnoliophytina. Nordic Journal of Botany 7: 239-253.

1986

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Smets E. 1986. Localization and systematic importance of the floral nectaries in the Magnoliatae (Dicotyledons). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 56: 51-76.

1984

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Smets E. 1984. Dahlgren's systems of classification (1975-1980): implications on taxonomical ordering and impact on character state analysis. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 54: 183-211.

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