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Erik Smets

Prof. dr. E. F. (Erik) Smets Scientific director Group leader - Taxonomy and Systematics

Contact

Email: erik.smets@naturalis.nl
Phone: +31 (0)71 751 92 59
Room number: Vondellaan 55, 2332 AA Leiden, Room e06.12
“First-rate education, good questions and detailed observations are at the heart of good research in systematics and biodiversity.”

I am fascinated by flowering plants. More specifically, I am very interested in defining good characteristics - morphological as well as phytochemical and molecular - to order flowering plants in predictive groups reflecting their phylogeny. My MSc project was about the definition of placentation types, seed types and nectaries, and in my PhD thesis I continued studying the floral nectaries of the flowering plants. Both degrees were obtained at the KU Leuven (Belgium).

From the early start of my career I had many managerial tasks and a huge teaching load, two aspects of my professional life that I found very rewarding, also from a research perspective.

Career

Former and present positions 

  • 1-7-2010 – present: Scientific Director of Naturalis Biodiversity Center
  • 1-9-2005 – present: Director of the National Herbarium of the Netherlands (NHN)
  • 1-9-2005 – present: Full Professor (Chair of Systematic botany), Leiden University
  • 1-9-2005 – present: Professor (Chair of Systematic botany), KU Leuven (http://bio.kuleuven.be/eebcs/plant-conservation-and-population-biology/)
  • 1-9-2005 – 31-1-2016: Scientific Director of the Hortus botanicus Leiden (http://www.hortusleiden.nl/)
  • 1-8-2000 – 31-7-2005: Head of the Department of Biology, KU Leuven
  • 1-10-1989 – 30-11-2008: Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Plant Systematics, KU Leuven

Honours

  • Member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts (2012)
  • Member of The Royal Holland Society of Sciences and Humanities (2010)
  • Foreign Member of the Linnean Society (2005) 

Other past and current academic activities

  • Executive Committee member (Treasurer) of the Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF), since 2016.
  • Member of the Board of the Graduate School for Production Ecology and Resource Conservation (PE&RC), since 2012.
  • Member of the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the National Authority for Data concerning Nature (GAN), since 2012.
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Natural History Museum Stuttgart (SMNS) and the Natural History Museum Karlsruhe (SMNK), since 2012.
  • Council Member of the International Organisation for Systematic and Evolutionary Biology (IOSEB), since 2011.
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS-KNAW), since 2011.
  • Member of the Leopold III-Fund for Nature Research and Nature Conservation, since 2009.
  • Member of the Board of the Alberta Mennega Foundation, since 2007.
  • Chair of the Professor Lam Fund, since 2007.
  • Vice-Chair of the Board of the Flora Malesiana Foundation, since 2006.
  • Board of Directors of the Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities (CETAF), since 2005.
  • Chair of “Leidse Bibliotheekstichting” Collectanea Botanica, since 2005.
  • Chair of the Dr. E. Kits van Waveren Foundation, since 2005.
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium, now Botanic Garden Meise, since 1997.
  • Member and Chair (1997-2005) of the Board of the Alumni Society PDL (“Vereniging van Afgestudeerden in de Plantkunde en de Dierkunde van de Universiteit te Leuven”), since 1991.
  • Member of the Board of ETI Bioinformatics; 2008-2012.
  • Member of the Examination Committee Biology of Leiden University; 2006-2013.
  • Board of Directors of the EU Network of Excellence “European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy”; 2006-2011.
  • Member, Vice-Chair (2008) and Chair (2009) of the Expert Panel Biodiversity and Ecology of The Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-Vlaanderen); 2000-2009.
  • Member of the Board of the Research School Biodiversity; 2005-2012.

Research

Research interest

My research interest focuses on the evolution of flowering plants, the world’s most dominant plant group. Initially, I was fascinated by the huge diversity in floral morphology. Later, my research interests expanded into floral development, pollen morphology, fruit and seed morphology, and wood anatomy. Monographic studies, still crucial for the inventory of Earth’s biodiversity, also became a major topic in my research group. The introduction of molecular systematics provided a new framework to comprehend the evolutionary relationships of plants. I strongly favor a multidisciplinary approach in which morphological features are combined with DNA sequence data and evolutionary developmental genetics (which I like to call molecular morphology) because integrative systematics will ultimately lead to better insights in the evolution of characters and in understanding the evolutionary history of flowering plants. 

Since November 2015 I am part of the Research goup Understanding evolution. I am also leading the Research group Taxonomy & Systematics.

Keywords

biogeography, phylogeny, dioscoreales, ericales, gentianales, floral development, morphology and anatomy, poales, evo-devo, systematics

Current research topics

As scientific director and member of the management team of Naturalis one of my main duties is to make our motivated group of scientist more effective. Since a few years my direct participation in research is limited, and therefore all my PhD candidates are supervised by a very dedicated daily supervisor (co-promotor). It is very rewarding though to be involved in the PhD projects mentioned below because it enables me to stay connected with current research.

Ongoing PhD projects (preliminary titles)

  • Phylogeny, evolutionary diversification and biogeography of Lower Central American orchids. (Bogarín, D.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • Phylogeny and morphological evolution of Leucobryaceae Schimp. (Bryophyta, Dicranales). (Bonfim Santos, M.; co-promotor Stech, M.)
  • A xylem physiological approach to better understand insular woodiness - is drought stress involved? (Chacon Dória, L.; co-promotor Lens, F.)
  • Functional genomics of orchids. (Dirks-Mulder, A.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • Phylogeographical patterns between the Atlantic and Amazon rainforests: an approach with the family Dicranaceae s.l. (Bryophyta) and other haplolepideous mossess. (Gama Dies Neto, R.; co-promotor Stech, M.)
  • The evolution of niches: a case study in Annonaceae. (Hoekstra, P.; co-promotors Wieringa, J. & Chatrou, L.)
  • Patterns of epiphytic bryophyte diversity in Gede-Pangrango National Park, Java, Indonesia. (Iskander, E.; co-promotors Stech, M. & Mota de Oliveira, S.)
  • Phylogenetic prospecting of Indonesian Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae) used as traditional antimicrobials. (Kusuma Wati, R.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • Genomic barcoding as a tool to trace and identify illegal logged African trees. (Mascarello, M.; co-promotor Janssens, S.)
  • The Evolution and development of orchid flowers and fruits. (Pramanik, D.; co-promotor Gravendeel, B.)
  • Bacterial leaf symbiosis. Origin, function, evolutionary gain and transmission mode of endophytes in bacteriophilous Rubiaceae. (Sinnesael, A.; co-promotors Panis, B. & Verstraete, B.)
  • Herb hydraulics: testing the role of root pressure to unravel the dynamics of drought-induced vascular dysfunction in stems (Thonglim, A.; co-promotor Lens, F.)

 

Collaborations

Most collaborations are via my research fellows, postdocs and PhD candidates. Active collaborations exist ao. with Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (http://www.kew.org/), Botanic Garden Meise (http://www.br.fgov.be/), and - of course - the laboratory of Plant conservation and population biology, KU Leuven (http://bio.kuleuven.be/eebcs/plant-conservation-and-population-biology/).

Collections

All collections of flowering plants (herbarium, fruits, seeds, wood, fixed material).

Supervision PhDs

Promotor

Promotor (*co-promotor) of successfully defended PhD projects

  • Ruchisansakun, S. 2018. Balsaminaceae in Southeast Asia. Systematics, Evolution, and Pollination Biology. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Schwallier, R. 2016. Evolutionary diversification of Nepenthes. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Semenova-Nelsen, T. 2016. Fungi of the greening Arctic: compositional and functional shifts in response to climatic changes. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Morgado, L. 2016. Peeking into the future: Fungi in the Greening Arctic. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Karremans, A. 2015. Systematic, phylogenetic and pollination studies of Specklinia (Orchidaceae). PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Mennes, C. 2015. Antiquities of the rainforest. Evolution of mycoheterotrophic angiosperms on Glomeromycota. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Lang, A. 2014. Phylogeny and species delimitation within the moss genus Dicranum Hedw.PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Towns, A. 2014. Fertility and Fontanels. Women’s knowledge of medicinal platns for reproductive health and childcare in western AfricaPhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Chaowasku, T. 2014. The Miliuseae revisited. Phylogenetic, taxonomic, and palynological studies in a major clade of Annonaceae. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Verstraete, B. 2013. Bacterial leaf endophytes in African Rubiaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Caris, P. 2013. Bloemontogenetische patronen in de Ericales sensu lato. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Kok, P. 2013. Islands in the Sky: Species Diversity, Evolutionary History, and Patterns of Endemism of the Pantepui Herpetofauna. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • *Vekemans, D. 2012. Diversification of MADS-box genes in flowering plants. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Rabaey, D. 2012. Micromorphological study of pits in tracheary elements of woody angiosperms. PhD thesis KU Leuven. 
  • Appelhans, M. 2011. Phylogeny and biogeography of Spathelioideae (Rutaceae). PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Lemaire, B. 2011. Diversity and Evolution of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Leaf Nodulated Angiosperms. PhD thesis KU Leuven. 
  • Subedi, A. 2011. New species, pollinator interactions and pharmaceutical potential of Himalayan orchids. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Boedeker, C. 2010. Phylogenetic, taxonomic and biogeographical studies in the Pithophoraceae (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta). PhD thesis Leiden University. 
  • Pruesapan, K. 2010. The rise and fall of Sauropus (Phyllanthaceae). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Sauropus and allies. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • Van den Hof, K. 2010. Evolution of Viola stagnina and its sisterspecies by hybridization and polyploidization. PhD thesis Leiden University.
  • *Viaene, T. 2010. Evolution of ancient MADS-gene functions. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Jacobs, B. 2010. Fruits and seeds of Dipsacales. Morphology and evolution. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Tosh, J. 2009. Biogeography of Madagascan Rubiaceae: Case studies from the Afro-Madagascan genus Tricalysia and the pantropical genus Ixora. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Geeraerts, A. 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions, morphological diversity and historical biogeography of Ebenaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Groeninckx, I. 2009. Integrated study of the herbaceous Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae). Systematics & Evolution. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Moon, H.-K. 2008. Systematic studies in Mentheae (Lamiaceae). Morphology, evolutionary aspects, phylogeny. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Merckx, V. 2008. Myco-heterotrophy in Dioscoreales. Systematics and evolution. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Janssens, S. 2008. Evolutionary studies in Balsaminaceae: integration of evidence from molecular and morphological data. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Vrijdaghs, A. 2006. A floral ontogenetic approach to homology questions in non-mapanioid Cyperaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Geuten, K. 2006. Bayesian phylogenetics and perianth evolutionary developmental genetics of the balsaminoid Ericales. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Lens, F. 2005. Systematic significance of wood anatomical characters in Ericales. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Ntore, S. 2004. Contribution à la connaissance systématique du genre afrotropical Pauridiantha (Rubiaceae). PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Schols, P. 2004. Contributions to the palynology and phylogeny of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae). PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Dessein, S. 2003. Systematic studies in the Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae). PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Vinckier, S. 2003. Orbicules: morphology, ultrastructure, and development in Gentianales and their possible role as vector of allergens. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Vermoere, M. 2002. Holocene vegetation history in the territory of Sagalassos (southwest Turkey). A palynological approach. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Pyck, N. 2001. Phylogenetic relations within Dipsacales. A combined molecular and morphological approach. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Jansen, S. 2001. Comparative wood anatomy of the Rubiaceae and phylogenetic implications of aluminium hyperaccumulation and vestured pits in angiosperms. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Piesschaert, F. 2001 Carpology and pollen morphology of the Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). Towards a new tribal and generic delimitation. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Huysmans, S. 1998. Palynology of the Cinchonoideae (Rubiaceae). Morphology and development of pollen and orbicules. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Roels, P. 1998. Phylogenetic position and delimitation of the order Dipsacales. A multidisciplinary approach. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Stoffelen, P. 1998. Coffea and Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) in tropical Africa: a systematic and palynological study, including a revision of the West and Central African species. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • De Laet, J. 1997. A reconsideration of three-item analysis, the use of implied weights in cladistics, and a practical application in Gentianaceae. PhD thesis KU Leuven.
  • Ronse Decraene, L.-P. 1992. The androecium of the Magnoliophytina: characterisation and systematic importance. PhD thesis KU Leuven.

Teaching

Courses

In 1999 I received a Teaching Certificate at the KU Leuven (Onderwijskundige Vorming Docenten), and in 2012 I obtained the Certificate Basic Teaching Qualification (BKO) from Leiden University).

Apart from some guest lectures, for example in the courses ‘Diversity of Algae, Fungi and Plants‘ (3rd Year Biology, KU Leuven) and ‘Plant Families of the Tropics’ (Masters Biology, Leiden University) I am teaching ‘Anatomy’ in the course ‘Tree of Life’ (1st Year Biology, Leiden University). Next, I am involved in the minor ‘Biodiversity and Natural Environment’ (3rd Year Biology, Leiden University) where I teach in the course ‘Evolutionary Developments’.

Available student projects

Public outreach

On a regular basis I am invited to talk about Plant systematics, The classification of Flowering plants, or to introduce Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Examples of recent talks are:

  • Character evolution and the classification of angiosperms. Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts, Brussels, Belgium (2013).
  • Research and Education at Naturalis. Univeridade de Brasilia, Brasil (2013), and Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia (2013).
  • Plant Systematics: Past and Present. HOVO, Leiden (2013).
  • Research at the Natural History Museum of the Netherlands: Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences, Brussels, Belgium (2014).
  • Lessons learned from experiences at the KU leuven and Leiden University: a personal view. Vietnam Forestry University, Hanoi, Vietnam (2014)
  • Naturalis: More than a Museum. Visit Bachelor students of Wageningen University (2015)
  • Naturalis: Museum, Natural History Collection, and Research Institute. Leidse Kennisdag, Leiden (2015).
  • Naturalis Biodiversity Center: Museum, Collection Infrastructure and Research Institute. Chiang Mai University, Thailand (2016).

Publications

2018

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Doria L.C., Podadera D.S., del Arco M., Chauvin T., Smets E., Delzon S., Lens F. 2018. Insular woody daisies (Argyranthemum, Asteraceae) are more resistant to drought-induced hydraulic failure than their herbaceous relatives. Functional Ecology 32: 1467-1478.
Go to website (DOI)

Ruchisansakun S., Suksathan P., Van der Niet T., Smets E., Saw-Lwin, Janssens S. 2018. Three new species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Myanmar. Phytotaxa 338: 63-74.
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Bogarin D., Fernandez M., Borkent A., Heemskerk A., Pupulin A., Ramirez S., Smets E.F., Gravendeel B. 2018. Pollination of Trichosalpinx (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 186: 510-543.
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Hoekstra P.H., Wieringa J.J., Smets E., Chatrou L.W. 2018. Floral evolution by simplifcation in Monanthotaxis (Annonaceae) and hypotheses for pollination system shifts. Scientific Reports 8: 12066.
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Bogarín D., Perez-Escobar O.A., Groenenberg D., Holland S.D., Karremans A.P., Lemmon E.M., Lemmon A.R., Pupulin F., Smets E., Gravendeel B. 2018. Anchored hybrid enrichment generated nuclear, plastid and mitochondrial markers resolve the Lepanthes horrida (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) species complex. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 129: 27-47.
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Ruchisansakun S., Suksathan P., Niet T. van der, Smets E., Saw-Lwin, Janssens S. 2018. Balsaminaceae of Myanmar. Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 63: 199-267.
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Sinnesael A., Eeckhout S., Janssens S., Smets E., Panis B., Leroux O., Verstraete B. 2018. Detection of Burkholderia in the seeds of Psychotria punctata (Rubiaceae). Microscopic evidence for vertical transmission in the leaf nodule symbiosis. PLOS ONE 13: e0209091.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Byng J., Smets E., Vugt R. van, Bidault E., Davidson C., Kenicer G., Chase M., Christenhusz M. 2018. The phylogeny of angiosperms poster: a visual summary of APG IV family relationships and floral diversity. 1: 4-31.

2017

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Dirks-Mulder A., Butot R., Schaik P. van, Wijnands J.W.P.M., Berg R. van den, Krol L., Doebar S., Kooperen K. van, Boer H. de, Kramer E.M., Smets E.F., Vos R.A., Vrijdaghs A., Gravendeel B. 2017. Exploring the evolutionary origin of floral organs of Erycina pusilla, an emerging orchid model system. BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 89.
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Hoekstra P.H., Wieringa J.J., Smets E., Brandão R.D., de Carvalho Lopes J., Erkens R.H.J., Chatrou L.W. 2017. Correlated evolutionary rates across genomic compartments in Annonaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 114: 63-72.
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Groeninckx I., Janssens S., Smets E., Verstraete B. 2017. Description of 11 new Astiella (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae) species endemic to Madagascar. European Journal of Taxonomy 312: 1-40.
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Jeiter J., Hilger H., Smets E., Weigend M. 2017. The relationship between nectaries and floral architecture: a case study in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae. Annals of Botany 120: 791-803.
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Merckx V.S.F.T., Gomes, S.I.F., Wapstra M., Hunt C., Steenbeeke G., Mennes C.B., Walsh N., Smissen R., Hsieh T.-H., Smets E., Bidartondo M.I. 2017. The biogeographic history of the interaction between mycoheterotrophic Thismia (Thismiaceae) plants and mycorrhizal Rhizophagus (Glomeraceae) fungi. Journal of Biogeography 44: 1869-1879.
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2016

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Morgado L.N., Semenova T.A., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2016. Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Global Change Biology 22: 3080–3096.
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Janssens S., Vandelook F., Langhe E. de, Verstraete B., Smets E., Vandenhouwe I., Swennen R. 2016. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia. New Phytologist 210: 1453-1465.
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Lemaire B., Cauwenberghe J. van, Verstraete B., Chimphango S., Stirton C., Honnay O., Smets E., Sprent J., James E., Muasya A.M. 2016. Characterization of the papilionoid-Burkholderia interaction in the Fynbos biome: the diversity and distribution of beta-rhizobia nodulating Podalyria calyptrata (Fabaceae, Podalyrieae). Systematic And Applied Microbiology 39: 41-48.
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Janssens S., Groeninckx I., Block P. de, Verstraete B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2016. Dispersing towards Madagascar: biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 95: 58-66.
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Davin N., Edger P.P., Hefer C.A., Mizrachi E., Schuetz M., Smets E., Myburg A.A., Douglas C.J., Schranz M.E., Lens F. 2016. Functional network analysis of genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis in soc1ful woody Arabidopsis plants.. Plant Journal 86: 376-390.
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Lens F., Vos R., Charrier G., Niet T. van der, Merckx V., Baas P., Aguirre Gutierrez J., Jacobs B., Chacon Doria L., Smets E., Delzon S., Janssens S. 2016. Scalariform-to-simple transition in vessel perforation plates triggered by differences in climate during the evolution of Adoxaceae. Annals of Botany 118: 1043-1056.
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Ruchisansakun S., Tangtorwongsakul P., Cozien R., Smets E., Van Der Niet T. 2016. Floral specialization for different pollinators and divergent use of the same pollinator among co-occurring Impatiens species (Balsaminaceae) from Southeast Asia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 651-666.
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Hoehndorf R., Alshahrani M., Gkoutos G., Gosline G., Groom Q., Hamann T., Kattge J., Mota de Oliveira S., Schmidt M., Sierra S., Smets E., Vos R.. Weiland C. 2016. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 7: 65.
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Lemaire B., Chimphango S., Stirton C., Rafudeen S., Honnay O., Smets E., Chen W.M., Sprent J., James E., Muasya A. 2016. Biogeographical Patterns of Legume-Nodulating Burkholderia spp.: from African Fynbos to Continental Scales. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 5099-5115.
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Semenova T.A., Morgado L.N., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2016. Compositional and functional shifts in arctic fungal communities in response to experimentally increased snow depth. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 100: 201-209.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Bogarín D., Pupulin F., Smets E., Gravendeel B. 2016. Evolutionary diversification and historical biogeography of the Orchidaceae in Central America with emphasis on Costa Rica and Panama. Lankesteriana 16: 189-200.
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2015

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Janssens S.B., Sonké B., Lachenaud O., Lemaires B., Simo-Droissart M., Smets E. 2015. Morphology, molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of Impatiens akomensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Cameroon. Plant Ecology and Evolution 148: 397-408.
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Lemaire B,, Dlodlo O., Chimphango S., Stirton C., Schrire B., Boatwright J.S., Honnay O., Smets E., Sprent J., James E.K., Muasya A.M. 2015. Symbiotic diversity, specificity and distribution of rhizobia in native legumes of the Core Cape Subregion (South Africa). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: 1-17.
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Vrijdaghs A., De Block P., Verstraete B., Groeninckx I., Smets E., Dessein S. 2015. A developmental model for the corolla in Rubiaceae. Cryptic character states in corollas of the Spermacoceae alliance. Plant Ecology and Evolution 148: 237-255.
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Morgado L.N., Semenova T.A., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2015. Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska. Global Change Biology 21: 959-972.
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Semenova T.A., Morgado L.N., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E., Geml J. 2015. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra. warming alters ascomycete communities. Molecular Ecology 24: 424-437.
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Mennes C.B., Moerland M.S., Rath M., Smets E.F., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2015. Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in Polygalaceae. American Journal of Botany 102: 598-608.
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Mennes C.B., Lam V.K.Y., Rudall P.J., Lyon S.P., Graham S.W., Smets E.F., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2015. Ancient Gondwana break-up explains the distribution of the mycoheterotrophic family Corsiaceae (Liliales). Journal of Biogeography 42: 1123-1136.
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Geml J., Morgado L.N., Semenova T.A., Welker J.M., Walker M.D., Smets E.F. 2015. Long-term warming alters richness and composition of taxonomic and functional groups of arctic fungi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: 1-13.
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Karremans A.P., Pupulin F., Grimaldi D., Beentjes K.K., Butôt R., Fazzi G.E., Kaspers K., Kruizinga J., Roessingh P., Smets E.F., Gravendeel B. 2015. Pollination of Specklinia by nectar-feeding Drosophila: the first reported case of a deceptive syndrome employing aggregation pheromones in Orchidaceae. Annals of Botany 116: 437-455.
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Lemaire B., Cauwenberghe J. van, Chimphango S., Stirton C., Honnay O., Smets E., Muasya A.M. 2015. Recombination and horizontal transfer of nodulation and ACC deaminase (acdS) genes within Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria nodulating legumes of the Cape Fynbos biome. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: fiv118.
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2014

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Volkmar U., Smets E.F., Lenz H., Janssens S.B. 2014. Intron evolution in a phylogenetic perspective: Divergent trends in the two copies of the duplicated def gene in Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 52: 134-148.
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Verstraete B., Peeters C., Wyk B. van, Smets E., Dessein S., Vandamme P. 2014. Intraspecific variation in Burkholderia caledonica: Europe vs. Africa and soil vs. endophytic isolates. Systematic And Applied Microbiology 37: 194-199.
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Vrijdaghs A., Flores-Olvera H., Smets E. 2014. Enigmatic floral structures in Alternanthera, Iresine, and Tidestromia (Gomphrenoideae, Amaranthaceae). A developmental homology assessment. Plant Ecology and Evolution 147: 49-66.
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Merckx V.S.F.T., Smets E.F. 2014. Thismia americana, the 101st anniversary of a botanical mystery. International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 165-175.
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Aflitos S., Schijlen E., Finkers R., Smit S., Wang J., Zhang G., Li N., Mao L., Jong H. de, Bakker F., Gravendeel B., Breit T., Dirks R., Huits H., Struss D., Swanson-Wagner R., Leeuwen H. van, Ham R.C.H.J. van, Fito L., Guignier L., Sevilla M., Ellul P., Ganko E., Kapur A., Reclus E., Geus B. de, Geest H. van de, Lintel Hekkert B. te, Haarst J. van, Smits L., Koops A., Sanchez-Perez G., Heusden A.W. van, Visser R., Quan Z., Min J., Liao L., Wang X., Wang G., Yue Z., Yang X., Xu N., Schranz E., Smets E., Vos R.A., Rauwerda J., Ursem R., Schuit C., Kerns M., Berg J. van den, Vriezen W., Janssen A., Jahrmann T., Moquet F., Bonnet J., Peters S. 2014. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing. Plant Journal 80: 136-148.
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Chaowasku T., Thomas D.C., Ham R.W.J.M. van der, Smets E.F., Mols J.B., Chatrou L.W. 2014. A plastid DNA phylogeny of tribe Miliuseae: insigts into relationships and character evolution in one of the most recalcitrant major clades of Annonaceae. American Journal of Botany 101: 691-709.
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Hamann T., Müller A., Roos M., Sosef M., Smets E. 2014. Detailed mark-up of semi-monographic legacy taxonomic works using FlorML. Taxon 63: 377-393.
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Verstraete B., Moon H.-K., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2014. Orbicules in flowering plants: A phylogenetic perspective on their form and function. Botanical Review 80: 107-134.
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2013

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Merckx V.S.F.T., Kissling J., Hentrich H., Janssens S.B., Mennes C.B., Specht C.D., Smets E.F. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of the mycoheterotrophic genus Voyria and the implications for the biogeographic history of Gentianaceae. American Journal of Botany 100: 712-721.
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Verstraete B., Lachenaud O., Smets E., Dessein S., Sonke B. 2013. Taxonomy and phylogenetics of Cuviera (Rubiaceae-Vanguerieae) and reinstatement of Globulostylis with the description of three new species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 173: 407-441.
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Tosh J., Dessein S., Buerki S., Groeninckx I., Mouly A., Bremer B., Smets E.F., Block P. de 2013. Evolutionary history of the Afro-Madagascan Ixora species (Rubiaceae): species diversification and distribution of key morphological traits inferred from dated molecular phylogenetic trees. Annals of Botany 112: 1723-1742.
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Verstraete B., Janssens S., Lemaire B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2013. Phylogenetic lineages in Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) associated with Burkholderia bacteria in sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Botany 100: 2380-2387.
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Scholz A., Rabaey D., Stein A., Cochard H., Smets E., Jansen S. 2013. The evolution and function of vessel and pit characters with respect to cavitation resistance across 10 Prunus species. Tree Physiology 33: 684-694.
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Verstraete B., Janssens S., Smets E., Dessein S. 2013. Symbiotic beta-Proteobacteria beyond Legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae. PLOS ONE 8: e55260.
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Lens F., Davin N., Smets E., Arco M. del 2013. Insular woodiness on the Canary Islands: a remarkable case of convergent evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 174: 992-1013.
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Mennes C.B., Smets E.F., Moses S.N., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2013. New insights in the long-debated evolutionary history of Triuridaceae (Pandanales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69: 994-1004.
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Chapters in books

Merckx V.S.F.T., Smets E.F., Specht C.D. 2013. Biogeography and Conservation. 103-156: Springer, New York.

2012

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Merckx V.S.F.T., Janssens S.B., Hynson N.A., Specht C.D., Bruns T.D., Smets E.F. 2012. Mycoheterotrophic interactions are not limited to a narrow phylogenetic range of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Molecular Ecology 21: 1524-1532.
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Lemaire B., Janssens S., Smets E., Dessein S. 2012. Endosymbiont Transmission Mode in Bacterial Leaf Nodulation as Revealed by a Population Genetic Study of Psychotria leptophylla. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 284-287.
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Lemaire B., Oevelen S. van, Block P. de, Verstraete B., Smets E., Prinsen E., Dessein S. 2012. Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf nodules of Pavetta (Rubiaceae). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 62: 202-209.
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Vinckier S.A., Janssens S.B., Huysmans S., Vandevenne A., Smets E.F. 2012. Pollen ontogeny linked to tapetal cell maturation in Impatiens parviflora (Balsaminaceae). Grana 51: 10-24.
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Janssens S.B., Smets E.F., Vrijdaghs A. 2012. Floral development of Hydrocera and Impatiens reveals evolutionary trends in the most early diverged lineages of the Balsaminaceae. Annals of Botany 109: 1285-1296.
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Lens F., Smets E., Melzer S. 2012. Stem anatomy supports Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for insular woodiness. New Phytologist 193: 12-17.
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Lemaire B., Lachenaud O., Persson C., Smets E., Dessein S. 2012. Screening for leaf-associated endophytes in the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 81: 364-372.
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Lens F., Eeckhout S., Zwartjes R., Smets E., Janssens S.B. 2012. The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach. Where do we draw the line?. Annals of Botany 109: 783-799.
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Gehrke B., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E., Muasya A.M. 2012. Unisexual flowers as a robust synapomorphy in Cariceae (Cyperaceae)? Evidence for bisexual flowers in Schoenoxiphium. South African Journal of Botany 78: 150-158.
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Janssens S.B., Wilson Y.S., Yuan Y.-M., Nagels A., Smets E.F., Huysmans S. 2012. A total evidence approach using palynological characters to infer the complex evolutionary history of the Asian Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Taxon 61: 355-367.

Appelhans M.S., Kessler P.J.A., Smets E., Razafimandimbison S.G., Janssens S.B. 2012. Age and historical biogeography of the pantropically distributed Spathelioideae (Rutaceae, Sapindales). Journal of Biogeography 39: 1235-1250.
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Chapters in books

Smets E. 2012. Prólogo, Voorwoord, Foreword.

2011

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verstraete B., Elst D. van, Steyn H., Wyk B. van, Lemaire B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Endophytic Bacteria in Toxic South African Plants: Identification, Phylogeny and Possible Involvement in Gousiekte. PLOS ONE 6: e19265.
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Hamann T., Smets E., Lens F. 2011. A comparison of paraffin and resin-based techniques used in bark anatomy. Taxon 60: 841-851.
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Lemaire B., Vandamme P., Merckx V., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Bacterial Leaf Symbiosis in Angiosperms: Host Specificity without Co-Speciation. PLOS ONE 6: e24430.
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Flores-Olvera H., Vrijdaghs A., Ochoterena H., Smets E. 2011. The need to re-investigate the nature of homoplastic characters: an ontogenetic case study of the 'bracteoles' in Atripliceae (Chenopodiaceae). Annals of Botany 108: 847-865.
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Lemaire B., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Bacterial leaf symbiosis in Ardisia (Myrsinoideae, Primulaceae): molecular evidence for host specificity. Research in Microbiology 162: 528-534.
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Verstraete B., Groeninckx I., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2011. Phylogenetic signal of orbicules at family level: Rubiaceae as case study. Taxon 60: 742-757.

Lemaire B., Huysmans S., Smets E., Merckx V. 2011. Rate accelerations in nuclear 18S rDNA of mycoheterotrophic and parasitic angiosperms. Journal of Plant Research 124: 561-576.
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Jacobs B., Geuten K., Pyck N., Huysmans S., Jansen S., Smets E. 2011. Unraveling the Phylogeny of Heptacodium and Zabelia (Caprifoliaceae): An Interdisciplinary Approach. Systematic Botany 36: 231-252.
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Janssens S.B., Dessein S., Smets E. 2011. Portrayal of Impatiens nzabiana (Balsaminaceae): a Morphological, Molecular and Biogeographic Study of a New Gabonese Species. Systematic Botany 36: 440-448.
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Lemaire B., Robbrecht E., Wyk B. van, Oevelen S. van, Verstraete B., Prinsen E., Smets E., Dessein S. 2011. Identification, origin, and evolution of leaf nodulating symbionts of Sericanthe (Rubiaceae). Journal of Microbiology 49: 935-941.
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Appelhans M.S., Smets E., Razafimandimbison S.G., Haevermans T., Marle E.J. van, Couloux A., Rabarison H., Randrianarivelojosia M., Kessler P.J.A. 2011. Phylogeny, evolutionary trends and classification of the Spathelia-Ptaeroxylon clade: morphological and molecular insights. Annals of Botany 107: 1259-1277.
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Vrijdaghs A., Reynders M., Muasya A.M., Larridon I., Goetghebeur P., Smets E.F. 2011. Morphology and development of spikelets and flowers in Cyperus and Pycreus (Cyperaceae). Plant Ecology and Evolution 144: 44-63.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Roos M.C., Berendshohn W.G., Dessein S., Hamann T., Hoffmann N., Hovenkamp P., Janssen T., Kirkup D., Kok R. de, Sierra S.E.C., Smets E., Webb C., Welzen P.C. van 2011. e-Flora Malesiana: state of the art and perspectives. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 63: 189-195.

Meester L. de, Tienderen P. van, Werger M., Hector A., Wörheide G., Niemelä J., Aguilar A., Smets E., Godfray C., Sutherland W., Bauhaus J., Courchamp F., Gandini G., Koch M., Le Maho Y., Manuel M., Pawlowski J., Quéinnec E., Owens I., Keustermans L. 2011. Challenges for biodiversity research in Europe. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences 13: 83-100.

2010

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Huysmans S., Verstraete B., Smets E., Chatrou L.W. 2010. Distribution of orbicules in Annonaceae mirrors evolutionary trend in angiosperms. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143: 199-211.
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Jacobs B., Bell C., Smets E. 2010. Fruits and seeds of the Valeriana clade (Dipsacales): diversity and evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171: 421-434.
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Groeninckx I., Ochoterena H., Smets E., Dessein S. 2010. Molecular phylogenetic and morphological study of Kohautia (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae), with the recognition of the new genus Cordylostigma. Taxon 59: 1457-1471.

Appelhans M.S., Smets E., Baas P., Kessler P.J.A. 2010. Cneorum (Rutaceae) in Cuba? The solution to a 150 year old mystery. Taxon 59: 1126-1134.

Groeninckx I., Block P. de, Robbrecht E., Smets E.F., Dessein S. 2010. Amphistemon and Thamnoldenlandia, two new genera of Rubiaceae (Spermacoceae) endemic to Madagascar. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 447-472.
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Groeninckx I., Briggs M., Davis A., Block P. de, Robbrecht E., Smets E., Dessein S. 2010. A new herbaceous genus endemic to Madagascar: Phialiphora (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae). Taxon 59: 1815-1829.

Vrijdaghs A., Reynders M., Larridon I., Muasya A.M., Smets E., Goetghebeur P. 2010. Spikelet structure and development in Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae): a monopodial general model based on ontogenetic evidence. Annals of Botany 105: 555-571.
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Boedeker C., Eggert A., Immers A., Smets E. 2010. Global Decline of and Threats to Aegagropila linnaei, with Special Reference to the Lake Ball Habit. BioScience 60: 187-198.
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Rabaey D., Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2010. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae. Taxon 59: 510-516.
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Jacobs B., Pyck N., Smets E. 2010. Phylogeny of the Linnaea clade: Are Abelia and Zabelia closely related?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 741-752.
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Moon H.-K., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2010. Phylogeny of tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae): The story of molecules and micromorphological characters. Taxon 59: 1065-1076.

Razafimandimbison S.G., Appelhans M.S., Rabarison H., Haevermans T., Rakotondrafara A., Rakotonandrasana S.R., Ratsimbason M., Labat J.-N., Kessler P.J.A., Smets E., Cruaud C., Couloux A., Randrianarivelojosia M. 2010. Implications of a molecular phylogenetic study of the Malagasy genus Cedrelopsis and its relatives (Ptaeroxylaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 258-265.
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Jacobs B., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2010. Evolution and systematic value of fruit and seed characters in Adoxaceae (Dipsacales). Taxon 59: 850-866.

Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Meester L. de, Tienderen P. van, Werger M., Hector A., Wörheide G., Niemelä J., Aguilar A., Smets E., Godfray C., Sutherland W., Bauhaus J., Courchamp F., Gandini G., Koch M., Le Maho Y., Manuel M., Pawlowski J., Quéinnec E., Owens I. 2010. Challenges for biodiversity research in Europe. Advice Paper 4: 1-18.

2009

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Raes N., Mols J.B., Willemse L.P.M., Smets E.F. 2009. Georeferencing specimens by combining digitized maps with SRTM digital elevation data and satellite images: a Bornean case study. Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 54: 162-165.
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Janssens S.B., Knox E.B., Dessein S., Smets E.F. 2009. Impatiens msisimwanensis (Balsaminaceae): Description, pollen morphology and phylogenetic position of a new East African species. South African Journal of Botany 75: 104-109.
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Moon H.-K., Hong S.-P., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2009. Phylogenetic significance of leaf micromorphology and anatomy in the tribe Mentheae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 211-231.
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Groeninckx I., Dessein S., Ochoterena H., Person C., Motley T.J., Karehed J., Bremer B., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2009. Phylogeny of the herbaceous tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae) based on plastid DNA data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96: 109-132.
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Muasya A.M., Vrijdaghs A., Simpson D.A., Chase M.W., Goetghebeur P., Smets E. 2009. What is a Genus in Cypereae: Phylogeny, Character Homology Assessment and Generic Circumscription in Cypereae. Botanical Review 75: 52-66.
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Merckx V., Bakker F.T., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2009. Bias and conflict in phylogenetic inference of myco-heterotrophic plants: a case study in Thismiaceae. Cladistics 25: 64-77.
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Vrijdaghs A., Muasya A.M., Goetghebeur P., Caris P., Nagels A., Smets E. 2009. A Floral Ontogenetic Approach to Questions of Homology within the Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae). Botanical Review 75: 30-51.
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Lens F., Groeninckx I., Smets E., Dessein S. 2009. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae–Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation?. Annals of Botany 103: 1049-1064.
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Viaene T., Vekemans D., Irish V.F., Geeraerts A., Huysmans S., Janssens S., Smets E., Geuten K. 2009. Pistillata-Duplications as a Mode for Floral Diversification in (Basal) Asterids. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 2627-2645.
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Muasya A.M., Simpson D.A., Verboom G.A., Goetghebeur P., Naczi R.F.C., Chase M.W., Smets E. 2009. Phylogeny of Cyperaceae Based on DNA Sequence Data: Current Progress and Future Prospects. Botanical Review 75: 2-21.
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Moon H.-K., Hong S.-P., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2009. Micromorphology and Character Evolution of Nutlets in Tribe Mentheae (Nepetoideae, Lamiaceae). Systematic Botany 34: 760-776.
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Lens F., Endress M.E., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2009. Vessel grouping patterns in subfamilies Apocynoideae and Periplocoideae confirm phylogenetic value of wood structure within Apocynaceae. American Journal of Botany 96: 2168-2183.
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Jacobs B., Lens F., Smets E. 2009. Evolution of fruit and seed characters in the Diervilla and Lonicera clades (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacales). Annals of Botany 104: 253-276.
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Janssens S.B., Knox E.B., Huysmans S., Smets E.F., Merckx V.S.F.T. 2009. Rapid radiation of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) during Pliocene and Pleistocene: Result of a global climate change. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 806-824.
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Geeraerts A., Raeymaekers J.A.M., Vinckier S., Pletsers A., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2009. Systematic palynology in Ebenaceae with focus on Ebenoideae: Morphological diversity and character evolution. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153: 336-353.
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Groeninckx I., Block P. de, Rakotonasolo F., Smets E., Dessein S. 2009. Rediscovery of Malagasy Lathraeocarpa allows determination of its taxonomic position within Rubiaceae. Taxon 58: 209-226.

Tosh J., Davis A.P., Dessein S., Block P., Huysmans S., Fay M.F., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2009. Phylogeny of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae) and its relationships with allied genera based on plastid DNA data: resurrection of the genus Empogona. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96: 194-213.
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Nagels A., Muasya A.M., Huysmans S., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E., Vinckier S. 2009. Palynological diversity and major evolutionary trends in Cyperaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 277: 117-142.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Smets E., Pronk S. 2009. Nieuwe perspectieven voor systematisch onderzoek. Origin 5: 4-7.

Bininda-Emonds O., Bogdanowicz W., Borsch T., Delsuc F., Hassanin A., Jondelius U., Peterson G., Renner S., Savolainen V., Seberg O., Smets E., Vogler A. 2009. Assembling the Tree of Life in Europe (AToLE). Nature Precedings 2891: 1-9.

Chapters in books

Smets E. 2009. Streepjescodes van DNA.

2008

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Moon H.-K., Vinckier S., Walker J.B., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2008. A search for phylogenetically informative pollen characters in the subtribe Salviinae (Mentheae : Lamiaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 455-471.
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Tosh J., Block P. de, Davis A.P., Dessein S., Robbrecht E., Smets E.F. 2008. The tribal placement of the monospecific tropical African genus Petitiocodon (Rubiaceae) based on molecular data and morphology. Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography 53: 549-565.
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Moon H.-K., Vinckier S., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2008. Comparative pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Mentheae subtribe Nepetinae (Lamiaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 149: 174-186.
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Flores Olvera H., Smets E., Vrijdaghs A. 2008. Floral and inflorescence morphology and ontogeny in Beta vulgaris, with special emphasis on the ovary position. Annals of Botany 102: 643-651.
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Nagels A., Muasya A. M., Huysmans S., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E., Vinckier S. 2008. Pollen diversity in Cyperaceae. South African Journal of Botany 74: 374-374.
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Merckx V., Schols P., Geuten K., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in Nartheciaceae (Dioscoreales), with focus on pollen and orbicule morphology. Belgian Journal of Botany 141: 64-77.
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Rabaey D., Lens F., Huysmans S., Smets E., Jansen S. 2008. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species. Protoplasma 233: 255-262.
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Rabaey D., Huysmans S., Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2008. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: tori and pseudo-tori. IAWA Journal 29: 409-424.
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Janssens S.B., Viaene T., Huysmans S., Smets E.F., Geuten K.P. 2008. Selection on length mutations after frameshift can explain the origin and retention of the AP3/DEF-like paralogues in Impatiens. Journal of Molecular Evolution 66: 424-435.
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Lens F., Karehed J., Baas P., Jansen S., Rabaey D., Huysmans S., Hamann T., Smets E. 2008. The wood anatomy of the polyphyletic Icacinaceae s.l., and their relationships within asterids. Taxon 57: 525-552.
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Merckx V., Chatrou L.W., Lemaire B., Sainge M.N., Huysmans S., Smets E.F. 2008. Diversification of myco-heterotrophic angiosperms: Evidence from Burmanniaceae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 178.
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Lens F., Endress M.E., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2008. Wood anatomy of Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae): a search for meaningful non-DNA characters at the tribal level. American Journal of Botany 95: 1199-1215.
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Jacobs B., Donoghue M.J., Bouman F., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2008. Evolution and phylogenetic importance of endocarp and seed characters in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 409-431.
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Moon H.-K., Vinckier S., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2008. Palynological evolutionary trends within the tribe Mentheae with special emphasis on subtribe Menthinae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 275: 93-108.
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Chapters in books

Smets E. 2008. Kiezen voor Systematiek.

Smets E. 2008. Preface.

2007

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Verellen J., Dessein S., Razafimandimbison S.G., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2007. Pollen morphology of the tribes Naucleeae and Hymenodictyeae (Rubiaceae-Cinchonoideae) and its phylogenetic significance. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 153: 329-341.
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Lens F., Schonenberger J., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2007. The role of wood anatomy in phylogeny reconstruction of Ericales. Cladistics 23: 229-254.
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Geuten K., Massingham T., Darius P., Smets E., Goldman N. 2007. Experimental design criteria in phylogenetics: Where to add taxa. Systematic Biology 56: 609-622.
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Lens F., Baas P., Jansen S., Smets E. 2007. A search for phylogenetically informative wood characters within Lecythidaceae s.l.. American Journal of Botany 94: 483-502.
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Groeninckx I., Vrijdaghs A., Huysmans S., Smets E., Dessein S. 2007. Floral ontogeny of the afro-madagascan genus Mitrasacmopsis with comments on the development of superior ovaries in rubiaceae. Annals of Botany 100: 41-49.
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Janssens S., Geuten K., Viaene T., Yuan Y.-M., Song Y., Smets E. 2007. Phylogenetic utility of the AP3/DEF K-domain and its molecular evolution in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 225-239.
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Muasya A.M., Simpson D.A., Smets E. 2007. Isolepis levynsiana, a new name for Cyperus tenellus (Cyperaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 17: 59-59.
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Journals non-SCI, peer-reviewed

Gravendeel B., Baas P., Smets E. 2007. Herbaria in Nederland: van blijvend belang voor het behoud van biodiversiteit. Gewina: Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Techniek 30: 153-161.

Edited books

Smets E. (eds.). 2007. Algemene Plantkunde: Morfologie en Fysiologie. 518 p. Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Chapters in books

Kessler P.J.A., Mols J.B. 2007. Annonaceae of Papua. 349-354: ISBN 0794603939.

Lens F., Jacobs B., Jansen S., Smets E. 2007. Practicumhandleiding Morfologie en Anatomie. III-94: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Smets E., Lens F. 2007. Cursustekst Fysiologie. III-120: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Smets E., Lens F. 2007. Figuren Morfologie. Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Smets E., Lens F. 2007. Cursustekst Morfologie. IV-114: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

Caris P., Jacobs B., Smets E. 2007. Practicumhandleiding Fysiologie. I-28: Uitgeverij ACCO, Leuven, Belgium. ISBN 9789033465208.

2006

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Rabaey D., Lens F., Smets E., Jansen S. 2006. The micromorphology of pit membranes in tracheary elements of Ericales: New records of tori or pseudo-tori?. Annals of Botany 98: 943-951.
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Vaes E., Vrijdaghs A., Smets E.F., Dessein S. 2006. Elaborate petals in Australian Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) species: Morphology, ontogeny and function. Annals of Botany 98: 1167-1178.
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Dessein S., Robbrecht E., Smets E. 2006. A new Heterophyllous Spermacoce species (Rubiaceae) from the Marungu highlands, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 16: 231-234.
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Geuten K., Becker A., Kaufmann K., Caris P., Janssens S., Viaene T., Theissen G., Smets E. 2006. Petaloidy and petal identity MADS-box genes in the balsaminoid genera Impatiens and Marcgravia. Plant Journal 47: 501-518.
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Merckx V., Schols P., Maas-van de Kamer H., Maas P., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2006. Phylogeny and evolution of Burmanniaceae (Dioscoreales) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data. American Journal of Botany 93: 1684-1698.
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Vinckier S., Cadot P., Grote M., Ceuppens J.L., Smets E. 2006. Orbicules do not significantly contribute to the allergenic micro-aerosol emitted from birch trees. Allergy 61: 1243-1244.
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Muasya A.M., Simpson D.A., Smets E. 2006. Isolepis tenella, a new combination in Cyperaceae. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 16: 89-90.
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Janssens S., Geuten K., Yuan Y.M., Song Y., Kupfer P., Smets E. 2006. Phylogenetics of impatiens and Hydrocera (Balsaminaceae) using chloroplast atpB-rbcL Spacer sequences. Systematic Botany 31: 171-180.
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Caris P., Smets E., Coster K., Decraene L.P.R. 2006. Floral ontogeny of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Rutaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 257: 223-232.
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Caris P.L., Geuten K.P., Janssens S.B., Smets E.F. 2006. Floral development in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). American Journal of Botany 93: 1-14.
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Petanidou T., Laere A. van, Ellis W.N., Smets E. 2006. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?. Oikos 115: 155-169.
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Vrijdaghs A., Goetghebeur P., Smets E., Muasya A.M. 2006. The floral scales in Hellmuthia (Cyperaceae, Cyperoideae) and Paramapania (Cyperaceae, Mapanioideae): An ontogenetic study. Annals of Botany 98: 619-630.
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2005

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Vrijdaghs A., Goetghebeur P., Muasya A.M., Caris P., Smets E. 2005. Floral ontogeny in Ficinia and Isolepis (Cyperaceae), with focus on the nature and origin of the gynophore. Annals of Botany 96: 1247-1264.
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Lens F., Dressler S., Jansen S., Evelghem L. van, Smets E. 2005. Relationships within balsaminoid ericales: A wood anatomical approach. American Journal of Botany 92: 941-953.
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Vrijdaghs A., Caris P., Goetghebeur P., Smets E. 2005. Floral ontogeny in Scirpus, Eriophorum and Dulichium (Cyperaceae), with special reference to the perianth. Annals of Botany 95: 1199-1209.
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Janssens S., Lens F., Dressler S., Geuten K., Smets E., Vinckier S. 2005. Palynological variation in balsaminoid Ericales. II. Balsaminaceae, Tetrameristaceae, Pellicieraceae and general conclusions. Annals of Botany 96: 1061-1073.
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Lens F., Dressler S., Vinckier S., Janssens S., Dessein S., Evelghem L. Van, Smets E. 2005. Palynological variation in balsaminoid Ericales. I. Marcgraviaceae. Annals of Botany 96: 1047-1060.
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Lens F., Jansen S., Caris P., Serlet L., Smets E. 2005. Comparative wood anatomy of the primuloid clade (Ericales s.I.). Systematic Botany 30: 163-183.
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Schols P., Wilkin P., Furness C.A., Huysmans S., Smets E. 2005. Pollen evolution in yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae). Systematic Botany 30: 750-758.
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Wilkin P., Schols P., Chase M.W., Chayamarit K., Furness C.A., Huysmans S., Rakotonasolo F., Smets E., Thapyai C. 2005. A plastid gene phylogeny of the yam genus, Dioscorea: Roots, fruits and Madagascar. Systematic Botany 30: 736-749.
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Dessein S., Ochoterena H., Block P. de, Lens F., Robbrecht E., Schols P., Smets E., Vinckier S., Huysmans S. 2005. Palynological characters and their phylogenetic signal in Rubiaceae. Botanical Review 71: 354-414.
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Dessein S., Andersson L., Geuten K., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2005. Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax (Rubiaceae): sister taxa excluded from Spermacoceae s.s., featuring a remarkable case of convergent evolution. Taxon 54: 91-107.
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Dessein S., Harwood R., Smets E., Robbrecht E. 2005. Pollen of the Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) species from the Northern Territory of Australia: morphology and taxonomic significance. Australian Systematic Botany 18: 367-382.
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Vinckier S., Cadot P., Smets E. 2005. The manifold characters of orbicules: structural diversity, systematic significance, and vectors for allergens. Grana 44: 300-307.
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Vinckier S., Smets E. 2005. A histological study of microsporogenesis in Tarenna gracilipes (Rubiaceae). Grana 44: 30-44.
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Schols P., Furness C.A., Merckx V., Wilkin P., Smets E. 2005. Comparative pollen development in Dioscoreales. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166: 909-924.
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2004

Journals SCI, peer-reviewed

Jansen S., Choat B., Vinckier S., Lens F., Schols P., Smets E. 2004. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera. New Phytologist 163: 51-59.
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Pyck N., Smets E. 2004. On the systematic position of Triplostegia (Dipsacales): A combined molecular and morphological approach. Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 125-139.
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Vrijdaghs A., Goetghebeur P., Muasya A., Smets E., Caris P. 2004. The nature of the perianth in Fuirena (Cyperaceae). South African Journal of Botany 70: 587-594.

Schols P., Es K., D'hondt C., Merckx V., Smets E., Huysmans S. 2004. A new enzyme-based method for the treatment of fragile pollen grains collected from herbarium material. Taxon 53: 777-782.

Jansen S., Watanabe T., Caris P., Geuten K., Lens F., Pyck N., Smets E. 2004. The distribution and phylogeny of aluminium accumulating plants in the ericales. Plant Biology 6: 498-505.
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Lens F., Kron K.A., Luteyn J.L., Smets E., Jansen S. 2004. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91: 566-592.
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Geuten K., Smets E., Schols P., Yuan Y.M., Janssens S., Kupfer P., Pyck N. 2004. Conflicting phylogenies of balsaminoid families and the polytomy in Ericales: combining data in a Bayesian framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31: 711-729.
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Jansen S., Baas P., Gasson P., Lens F., Smets E. 2004. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 8833-8837.

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