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Arthur Bos

Dr. Ir. A.R. (Arthur) Bos, Research Associate -


Email: arthurrbos@yahoo.com
Phone: +20 2 2615 2903
Room number: See below

Present position and address:
Associate Professor Marine Biology and Ecology, Department of Biology, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo 11835, Egypt.


External professional activities


Research interest

  • Ecology and species diversity of reef fishes
  • Population ecology of Echinoderms
  • Functioning of Marine Protected Areas
  • Environmental parameters affecting larval and juvenile fish populations
  • Seagrass ecology and habitat restoration


seagrass restoration, echinodermata, marine biodiversity, coral reef ecology, fish biology and taxonomy, population dynamics

Current research topics

Population ecology of Asteroidea

The Indo-Pacific crown-of-thorns sea star Acanthaster planci feeds on coral polyps and is a threat to coral reefs when occurring in high densities (Bos 2010). During those so-called “outbreaks”, this sea star may destroy entire reefs. I have studied population ecology and infestation strategies of the crown-of-thorns sea star since several years and have contributed to understanding the ecological processes of outbreaks.

Left) Crown-of-thorns sea star Acanthaster planci eating coral; Middle) Corallimorpharian polyp attacking a crown-of-thorns sea star; Right) Paracorynactis hoplites.

As the crown-of-thorns is a spiny and poisonous animal, it has only few natural enemies. In 2007, I observed a crown-of-thorns being consumed by a solitary relatively large polyp. This unique and remarkable observation was published in Coral Reefs (Bos et al. 2008) and triggered several follow-up studies. The polyp, which belongs to the Corallimorpharia (Anthozoa) and had formerly been added to the genus of Pseudocorynactis, was still an unknown species. The collection of Naturalis and preliminary studies of Dr. Koos den Hartog, a Corallimorpharia expert who worked many years for Naturalis, allowed the description of the polyp Paracorynactis hoplites (Ocaña et al. 2010). Since then, I have studied biological and ecological aspects of P. hoplites.

Several Indo-Pacific asteroids are subject to intensive collection for the ornamental trade and some populations are under severe pressure. Sea stars are commonly dried and sold as souvenir to tourists or manufactured into bathroom decorations for foreign markets. Little is known however, about the ecological effects of collection and I have studied population dynamics of the commonly targeted sea stars, such as Archaster typicus, Linckia laevigata and Protoreaster nodosus. Furthermore, as collaborator with SeaLifeBase, I have made ecological information and underwater photographs of sea stars (and other Echinoderms) publically available.

Left) Souvenir baskets with dyed sea stars; Middle) Storage room with thousands of dried blue linckia's, Linckia laevigata, in the Philippines; Right) Archaster typicus decorating photo albums in a bookstore in Germany. 

Reef fish and marine biodiversity

The Philippine seas, located in the center of the coral triangle, have an unusually high biodiversity. I have recorded and photographed more than 1000 fish species in the Davao Gulf and this number is still increasing. Several of these species are first records for the Philippines or remain to be named. One of the newly discovered species is the goatfish Upeneus nigromarginatus which is thus far only known from the Davao Gulf. To make new information available, I collaborate with FishBase and add biological data and ecological knowledge to its database.

Fish are an important source of protein for millions of people in coastal areas in the Philippines. With a continuously growing population, natural resources have become overexploited and fishing pressure has dramatically increased. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide a solution by excluding certain areas from fishing and allowing fish to grow and reproduce. After several years of protection, MPAs usually become units with increased fish biomass and high biodiversity. Furthermore, MPAs export fish and larvae to adjacent areas (the spillover effect) supporting small-scale fisheries. I have supported the establishment of a range of MPAs and studied their fish density, biomass, and species diversity.

Fish catches represent the status of fish populations and therefore I have initiated studies on fish markets. Landed fish have become smaller over the years and a shift from typical target families to other fish families has been observed.

Left) Juvenile fish sold on a small plate; Middle) MPAs support high fish biomass; Right) Chaetodon punctatofasciatus (Chaetodontidae) measured at a local fish market.




  • Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates, American University in Cairo
  • Directed Research, School for Field Studies/Boston University
  • Ecology, American University in Cairo
  • Essentials of Environmental Biology, American University in Cairo
  • Guided Studies in Biology, American University in Cairo
  • Introduction to Life Sciences, American University in Cairo
  • Invertebrate Diversity, American University in Cairo
  • Marine Ecology, American University in Cairo
  • Marine Parks Management, School for Field Studies/Boston University
  • Tropical Marine Ecology, School for Field Studies/Boston University
Available student projects


Citation details on Google Scholar 

Bos, A.R., J.R. Grubich & A.M. Sanad, 2018. Growth, site fidelity and grouper interactions of the Red Sea lionfish Pterois miles (Scorpaenidae) in its native habitat. Marine Biology 165 DOI: 10.1007/s00227-018-3436-6

Heery, E.C., B.W. Hoeksema, N.K. Browne, J.D. Reimer, P.O. Ang, D. Huang, D.A. Friess, L.M. Chou, L.H.L. Loke, P. Saksena-Taylor, N. Alsagoff, T. Yeemin, M. Sutthacheep, S.T. Vo, A.R. Bos, G.S. Gumanao, M.A. Syed Hussein, Z. Waheed, D.J.W. Lane, O. Johan, A. Kunzmann, J. Jompa, D. Taira, A.G. Bauman, P.A. Todd, 2018. Urban coral reefs: Degradation and resilience of hard coral assemblages in coastal cities of East and Southeast Asia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135: 654-681

Gumanao, G.S., A.R. Bos & J.E. Randall, 2018. The Seagrass Filefish, Acreichthys tomentosus (Linnaeus), a master of camouflage. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation 30: 58-72

Soliman, A., A. Amleh, S. Kafafy & A.R. Bos, 2018. Population ecology, reproduction and locomotion of the sand dollar Sculpsitechinus auritus in the Gulf of Suez, northern Red Sea. Marine Biodiversity 48(2): 1213-1221 DOI: 10.1007/s12526-016-0571-5

Bos, A.R. & J. Ogwang, 2018. Caesio varilineata Carpenter, 1987 (Osteichthyes: Caesionidae) a new alien fish in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea. BioInvasions Records 7(4): 441-445

Bos, A.R. & C.H.J.M. Fransen, 2018. Nocturnal cleaning of sleeping rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus, by the cleaner shrimp Urocaridella antonbruunii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae). Crustaceana 91(2): 239-241

Bos, A.R., G.S. Gumanao & M. Silvosa, 2017. Twenty-eight additions to the Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Indo-Pacific fishes from the Davao Gulf, Philippines.  Journal of Applied Ichthyology 34(1): 185-189 DOI: 10.1111/jai.13525

Pratchett MS, CF Caballes, JC Wilmes, S Matthews, C Mellin, HPA Sweatman, LE Nadler, J Brodie, CA Thompson, J Hoey, A.R. Bos, M Byrne, V Messmer, S Valero-Fortunato, CCM Chen, ACE Buck, RC Babcock, S Uthicke, S Yusmalinar, T Anggraeni, K Khusnan, I Wibowo, R Eka Putra, I Ahmad, J Diaci, D Roženbergar, G Fidej, TA Nagel, A Ryvkin, NS Markov, S Breton, C Capt, D Guerra, D Stewart, 2017. Thirty years of research on Crown-of-thorns Starfish (1986-2016): Scientific advances and emerging opportunities. Diversity 9(4): 1-49 DOI: 10.3390/d9040041

Bos, A.R. & B.W. Hoeksema, 2017. Mushroom corals (Fungiidae) in the Davao Gulf, Philippines, with records of associated fish and other cryptofauna. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 65: 198-206

Saceda-Cardoza, M.M. & A.R. Bos, 2017. First record of the rare anthiine Meganthias kingyo (Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai, 2000) (Serranidae) from the Philippines. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 33(4): 813-814 DOI: 10.1111/jai.13409

Bos, A.R., A.M. Sanad & K Elsayed, 2017. Gymnothorax spp. (Muraenidae) as natural predators of lionfish Pterios miles in its native biogeographical range. Environmental Biology of Fishes 100(6): 745-748 DOI: 10.1007/s10641-017-0600-7

Bos, A.R., E. Cruz-Rivera & A.M. Sanad, 2017. Herbivorous fishes Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae) and Zebrasoma desjardinii (Acanthuridae) feed on Ctenophora and Scyphozoa in the Red Sea. Marine Biodiversity 47(1): 243-246 DOI: 10.1007/s12526-016-0454-9

Wickel, J., M. Pinault, R. Garnier & A.R. Bos, 2017. The corallimorpharian Paracorynactis hoplites feeds on the sea star Choriaster granulatus in the western Indian Ocean. Marine Biodiversity 47(1): 159-160 DOI: 10.1007/s12526-015-0461-x

Rodrigues, M., A.R. Bos, P. Schembri, R.F. de Lima, P. Lymberakis, L. Parpal, M. Cento, S. Ruette, S.O. Ozkurt, M. Santos-Reis, J. Merilä & C. Fernandes, 2017. Origin and introduction history of the Least Weasels (Mustela nivalis) on Mediterranean and Atlantic islands inferred from genetic data. Biological Invasions 19(1): 399-421 DOI: 10.1007/s10530-016-1287-y

Rodrigues, M., A.R. Bos, P. Schembri, R.F. de Lima, P. Lymberakis, L. Parpal, M. Cento, S. Ruette, S.O. Ozkurt, M. Santos-Reis, J. Merilä & C. Fernandes, 2017. Erratum to: Origin and introduction history of the Least Weasels (Mustela nivalis) on Mediterranean and Atlantic islands inferred from genetic data. Biological Invasions 19(1): 423-424

Rodrigues, M., A.R. Bos, R.C. Hoath, P. Schembri, P. Lymberakis, M. Cento, W. Ghawar, S.O. Ozkurt, M. Santos-Reis, J. Merilä & C. Fernandes, 2016. Taxonomic status and origin of the Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Genetica 144(2): 191–202 DOI: 10.1007/s10709-016-9889-y

Gumanao, G.S., M.M. Saceda-Cardoza, B. Mueller & A.R. Bos, 2016. Length-weight and length-length relationships of 139 Indo-Pacific fish species from the Davao Gulf, Philippines. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 32(2): 377–385 DOI: 10.1111/jai.12993

Bos, A.R., 2016. Soft corals provide microhabitat for camouflaged juveniles of the Blackspotted wrasse Macropharyngodon meleagris (Labridae). Marine Biodiversity 46(1): 299–301 DOI 10.1007/s12526-015-0332-x

Bos, A.R. &B.W. Hoeksema, 2015. Cryptobenthic fishes and co-inhabiting shrimps associated with the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis (Fungiidae) in the Davao Gulf, Philippines. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98(6): 1479–1489

Bos, A.R., 2014. Upeneus nigromarginatus, a new species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Philippines. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 745–753

Grubich, J.R., A.R. Bos & M.W. Westneat, 2014. Fish Gristle: mechanical performance of IOPM ligaments among functionally diverse jaws. Integrative and Comparative Biology 54(1): E80

Bos, A.R. & G.S. Gumanao, 2013. Seven new records of fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) from coral reefs and pelagic habitats in Southern Mindanao, the Philippines. Marine Biodiversity Records 6(e95): 1-6  doi:10.1017/S1755267213000614

Bos, A.R. & H.M. Smits, 2013. First record of the dottyback Manonichthys alleni (Teleostei: Perciformes: Pseudochromidae) from the Philippines. Marine Biodiversity Records 6 (e61): doi:10.1017/S1755267213000365

Bos, A.R., G.S. Gumanao. B. Mueller & M.M. Saceda, 2013. Size at maturation, sex differences, and pair density during the mating season of the Indo-Pacific beach starArchaster typicus (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Philippines. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 57(2): 113-119

Bos, A.R., G.S. Gumanao. B. Mueller & M.M. Saceda-Cardoza, 2013. Management of crown-of-thorns sea star (Acanthaster planci L.) outbreaks: removal success depends on reef topography and timing within the reproduction cycle. Ocean and Coastal Management 71: 116-122

Bos, A.R. & G.S. Gumanao, 2012. The lunar cycle determines availability of coral reef fishes on fish markets. Journal of Fish Biology 81(6): 2074-2079

Bos, A.R., 2012. Fishes (Gobiidae and Labridae) associated with the mushroom coralHeliofungia actiniformis (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) in the Philippines. Coral Reefs 31(1): 133

Bos, A.R., B. Mueller & G.S. Gumanao, 2011. Feeding biology and symbiotic relationships of the corallimorpharian Paracorynactis hoplites (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59(2): 245-250

Mueller, B., A.R. Bos, G. Graf & G.S. Gumanao, 2011. Size-specific locomotion rate and movement pattern of four common Indo-Pacific sea stars (Echinodermata; Asteroidea).Aquatic Biology 12(2): 157-164

Bos, A.R., 2011. Clownfishes Amphiprion clarkii and A. sandaracinos (Pomacentridae) coexist in the sea anemone Stichodactyla mertensiiCoral Reefs 30(2): 369

Bos, A.R., G.S. Gumanao, M.M. van Katwijk, B. Mueller, M.M. Saceda & R.P. Tejada, 2011. Ontogenetic habitat shift, population growth, and burrowing behavior of the Indo-Pacific beach star, Archaster typicus (Echinodermata; Asteroidea). Marine Biology 158(3): 639–648

Bos, A.R., 2010 Crown-of-thorns outbreak in the Tubbataha Reefs UNESCO World Heritage Site. Zoological Studies 49(1): 124

Katwijk, M.M. van, A.R. Bos, D.C.R. Hermus & W. Suyckerbuyk, 2010. Sediment modification by seagrass beds: muddification and sandification induced by plant cover and environmental conditions. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 89(2): 175–181

Katwijk, M.M. van, A.R. Bos, P. Kennis & R. de Vries, 2010. Vulnerability to eutrophication of a semi-annual life history: A lesson learnt from an extinct eelgrass (Zostera marina) population. Biological Conservation 143(1): 248–254

Ocaña, O., J.C. den Hartog, A. Brito & A.R. Bos, 2010. On Pseudocorynactis species and another related genus from the Indo-Pacific (Anthozoa: Corallimorphidae). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias XXI (3-4): 9–34 

Bos, A.R., 2009. Marine Biodiversity in the Philippines - A photo calendar for the year 2010. 24pp. 

Katwijk, M.M. van, A.R. Bos, V.N. de Jonge, L.S.A.M. Hanssen, D.C.R. Hermus & D.J. de Jong, 2009. Guidelines for seagrass restoration: importance of habitat selection and donor population, spreading of risks, and ecosystem engineering effects. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58(2): 179–188

Bos, A.R., J.C.E. Alipoyo, L.T. Cardona, G.S. Gumanao & F.N. Salac, 2008. Population structure of common Indo-Pacific sea stars in the Davao Gulf. UPV Journal of Natural Sciences 13: 11–24  

Bos, A.R., G.S. Gumanao, J.C.E. Alipoyo & L.T. Cardona, 2008. Population dynamics, reproduction and growth of the Indo-Pacific horned sea star, Protoreaster nodosos(Echinodermata; Asteroidea). Marine Biology 156(1): 55–63

Bos, A.R., G.S. Gumanao & F.N. Salac, 2008. A newly discovered predator of the crown-of-thorns starfish. Coral Reefs 27(3): 581

Bos, A.R., T.J. Bouma, G.L.J. de Kort & M.M. van Katwijk, 2007. Ecosystem engineering by annual intertidal seagrass beds: Sediment accretion and modification. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 74(1-2): 344–348

Bos, A.R. & M.M. van Katwijk, 2007. Planting density, hydrodynamic exposure and mussel beds affect survival of transplanted intertidal eelgrass. Marine Ecology Progress Series 336: 121–129

Bos, A.R., C. Kapasa & P.A.M. van Zwieten, 2006. Update on the bathymetry of Lake Mweru with notes on water level fluctuations. African Journal of Aquatic Science 31(1): 145–150

Bos, A.R. & R. Thiel, 2006. Influence of salinity on the migration of post-larval and juvenile European flounder (Pleuronectes flesus L.) in a gradient experiment. Journal of Fish Biology 68(5): 1411–1420

Katwijk, M.M. van, G.W. Geerling, R. Rasin, R. van ’t Veer, A.R. Bos, D.C.R. Hermus, M. van Wieringen, Z. Jager, A. Groeneweg, P.L.A. Erftemeijer, T. van der Heide & D.J. de Jong, 2006. Macrophytes in the western Wadden Sea: monitoring, invasion, transplantations, dynamics and European policy. Proceedings of the 11th International Scientific Wadden Sea Symposium, Esbjerg. p. 89–98

Bos, A.R., N. Dankers, A.H. Groeneweg, D.C.R. Hermus, Z. Jager, D.J. de Jong, T. Smit, J. de Vlas, M. van Wieringen & M.M. van Katwijk, 2005. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the western Wadden Sea: Monitoring, habitat suitability model, transplantations and communication. VLIZ Special Publication 19: 95–109

Bos, A.R., S. Clark & S. Gore, 2003. Preliminary observations on habitat use of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in South Caicos, Turks & Caicos Islands. Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. p. 230–240

Bos, A.R., 2000. Aspects of the life history of the European flounder (Pleuronectes flesus L. 1758) in the tidal River Elbe.  Dissertation.de – Verlag im Internet GmbH. Berlin. 129 pp.ISBN 3-89825-082-2

Bos. A.R., 1999. Tidal transport of flounder larvae (Platichthys flesus) in the River Elbe, Germany. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research 47(1): 47–60

Bos, A.R., R. Thiel & W. Nellen, 1995. Distribution and transport mechanism of the upstream migrating flounder larvae, Pleuronectes flesus Linnaeus 1758, in the tidal River Elbe, Germany. International Council for Exploration of the Seas, ICES-CM/M:41. 10 pp. 

Brock, T.C.M., A.R. Bos, S.J.H. Crum & R. Gijlstra, 1995. The model ecosystem approach in ecotoxicology as illustrated with a study on the fate and effects of an insecticide in stagnant freshwater microcosms. In: Immunochemical detection of pesticides and their metabolites in the water cycle. B. Hock & R. Niebner (Eds). pp. 167–185 

Brock, T.C.M., M. van der Bogaert, A.R. Bos, S.W.F. van Breukelen, R. Reiche, J. Terwoert, R.E.M. Suykerbuyk & R.M.M. Roijackers, 1992. Fate and effects of the insecticide Dursban4E in indoor Elodea-dominated and macrophyte-free freshwater model ecosystems: II. Secondary effects on community structure. Archive of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 23(4): 391–401

Meesters, E.H., A.R. Bos & G.J. Gast, 1992. Effects of sedimentation and lesion position on coral tissue regeneration. Proceedings of 7th International Coral Reef Symposium, Guam, 2: 681–688

Selected technical reports

Bos, A.R., 2011. Fish density, biomass, and species overview of the Dive Hub Marine Protected Area, Antulang, Si-it, Siaton, Negros Oriental, Philippines. 18 pp.

Bos, A.R. & G.S. Gumanao, 2010. Status of the fishery in the Davao Gulf as observed from a fish market survey. German Development Service - Philippines, Panabo. 21 pp. 

Bos, A.R., 2010. New records of reef fish in the Dive Hub Sanctuary, Antulang, Negros Oriental, Philippines. Davao del Norte State College. Panabo. 3 pp. 

Bos, A.R. & G.S. Gumanao, 2007. Qualitative survey of the reef fishes of Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental, Philippines. Davao del Norte State College, Panabo, 13 pp. 

Cabo, A.B., A.R. Bos & S. Groenewold, 2006. Reef surveys to the effects of the oil spill in Guimaras Island, Philippines. German Development Service – DED, Manila, 24 pp. 

Thiel. R. & A.R. Bos, 1998. Fischereibiologische Untersuchung verschiedener Schlenzen an der Stromelbe in Hamburg; Abschlußbericht. Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung der Hamburger Universität. 90 pp. (in German) 

Bos, A.R. & H. Ticheler, 1996. A limnological update of the Bangweulu fishery, Zambia. DoF/BF/1996/Report no.26. 25 pp. 

Bos, A.R., P.A.M. van Zwieten & S.N. Ngula, 1996. A limnological survey on Lake Mweru, Zambia. Report No. 27, Department of Fisheries, Nchelenge. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Zambia. 18 pp.

Marine Biodiversity Calendar 2010

Marine Biodiversity in the Philippines - A photo Calendar for the year 2010