Alexandra (Sandra) van der Geer
Phone: +31 (0)71-56 87 390
Room number: Vondellaan 55 (03.46)
I am a palaeontologist, specialised in aspects of evolution and biogeography of mammals on islands worldwide with emphasis on the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia. My Ph.D. is on adaptive radiation in extinct insular deer. Veterinary Medicine is my original background, hence my special interest in diet, ecology and morphology. I have ongoing collaborations with biogeographers and palaeontologists in international institutions, including the State University of New York, the American Museum of Natural History, Brown University of Rhode Island, the Field Museum of Natural History, the University of Wollongong and the University of Rome. Currently, I am shifting focus to developmental aspects of vertebrate evolution in isolation.
- 2017 - ... Postdoc Researcher at Naturalis Biodiversity Center.
- 2013 - ... Associate Researcher at the Department of Geology and Historical Geology, National University of Athens, Greece.
- 2012 Ph.D., Paleontology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands (scheduled defence May 12th 2014).
- 2010 - ... Research Associate at the Department of Geology, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
- 2005 - 2009 Associate Researcher, Museum of Palaeontology and Geology (National University of Athens, Greece).
- 2003 - 2004 Postdoctoral fellow at the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS), University of Leiden, the Netherlands.
- 1999 - 2002 Scientific Assistant at the Kern Institute, Faculty of Humanities, University of Leiden, the Netherlands.
- 1998 Language Engineer at Polderland Language and Speech Technology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
- 1993 - 1998 Ph.D., Humanities, University of Leiden, the Netherlands.
- 1992 - 2000 Owner of sole proprietorship Talen Instituut Console, publishing company.
- 1984 - 1992 M.A., Humanities, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.
- 1981 - 1987 M.Sc., Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Research Grants (externally financed projects)
- 2017 Netherlands Science Foundation (NWO) funded VENI project. Career development grant.
- 2012 European Union (ESF) and Greek NSRF THALIS-UOA funded project. Named researcher. Grant holder Hara Drinia.
- 2003 KNAW (Jan Gonda Fonds) research grant.
- 2000 American Museum Collection Study Grant (Kalbfleisch Fund).
- 1993 University of Leiden research grant: PhD project. Named researcher. Grant holder CNWS Research School, University of Leiden, the Netherlands.
My present research focuses at the evolution and extinciton of insular mammals worldwide, past and present. An important aspect of the evolution of insular mammals is body size evolution, which roughly means that large mammals become small (dwarfism) whereas small mammals become large (gigantism). Many exceptions are known, and the factors that dictate the direction of body size evolution depend not only on the ancestral taxon but also on the island, the climate and the rest of the fauna, in other words, on the context. The extinction of insular mammals is perhaps an even more interesting phenomenon and sadly enough, an ongoing problem we face today on islands worldwide. The drivers behind these extinctions, however, are not always clear or known. A third research interest forms the role that animals play in human culture and folklore. The fauna surrounding human settlements always has an impact on human culture, and varies from use as food or utensils (meat, bone, sinew, antlers etc.) to art objects (decoration) and auspicious and religious symbols (zoomorphic divinities).
Keywordsevolution, biogeography, mammals, neogene, palaeontology, pleistocene, vertebrate palaeontology; island biogeography; extinctions; comparative morphology; mammalian system, insularity, à converis biodiversity, island mammals, palaeoecology, taxonomy
Current research topics
Changing invaders: How introduced rats have changed during their colonization of Pacific islands
Humans have been transporting vertebrates to islands worldwide since prehistory, often with dramatic impact on native fauna. These introduced species appear to change very rapidly. The direction, mechanism and drivers of these evolutionary changes parallel those of macro-evolutionary changes but on a spatially delimited scale, the island. This allows for the study of the separate factors involved in multifactorial evolution. I want to test predictions on how introduced species adapt evolutionarily to local environments within a known time frame. I will use the Polynesian rat as a proxy species. This species provides a “natural experiment” in evolution, because it is represented by multiple introduced populations with a vast geographic and well-documented temporal range, occurring on a multitude of islands, each with different characteristics. I will correlate its evolutionary changes with various features, including time, space, the presence of native competitive species, geographic features and climate. To describe its evolution, I will quantify size and shape changes of the skull and lower jaw with geometric morphometrics, a method that captures the shape of organisms. My preliminary data from various islands across the entire range of the species show a remarkable size and shape variation. I will further test if the observed changes have a genetic background or are due to drift. I hypothesize that the Polynesian rat is rapidly adapting to local conditions in a predictable way. My main aim is to analyse how this species evolves. Additionally, data on how an invasive species interacts with environmental conditions and the native fauna is urgently needed, especially with the increasing pace of introductions today due to globalized transport.
Isolario - Island biodiversity and cultural evolution: examples from the Eastern Mediterranean, Madagascar, Mauritius and Philippines during the past 800,000 years
Islands often differ from the surrounding mainlands by their faunas. Endemic taxa evolve here in isolation and generally without having to compete with competitors or to escape from terrestrial predators. This often results in unique and sometimes even bizarre endemic species. But what is the effect of this on human culture and vice versa? What is the interaction between endemic faunas or elements thereof and human culture? The project Isolario aims at identifying the impact of humans on insular animals and the role these animals play in local culture such as art and mythology.
Of Mice and Mammoth: toward a general theory of body size across space and time
Body size is one of the major factors dictating physiological and anatomical processes. The direction of body size evolution in a species depends on many factors, internal as well as external. These factors change dramatically once a species finds itself geographically isolated and accordingly, the original direction of its body size evolution may change dramatically as well. The eventual outcome is predictable once the contributing factors are known. The project Of Mice and Mammoths investigates the nature of these factors and the role they play per taxon.
Vatera Two Million Years Ago
The Early Pleistocene fauna of Lesvos (Greece) is known mainly from findings at Vatera near Polichnitos. The fossils are exhibited in a local natural history collection at the village of Vrissa, open to the public and under scientific curation by the University of Athens. The project Vatera 2 Myrs ago aimed at enhancing the accessibility of the collection by creating a database and a website. Both the database, which includes photographs of all specimens, and the website are online.
Animals in Stone- Indian fauna sculptured through time
The art history of South Asia covers a time span of roughly four and a half thousand years. During this period, a vast number of animal stone sculptures has been produced, ranging from the pre-historic period till today and covering a great variety of motifs and imagery in different regions and religious traditions. Even so, the number of studies devoted to these animal sculptures has remained extremely limited. The project Animals in Stone aimed at filling this knowledge gap and resulted in a textbook and lectures.
Changing invaders: How introduced rats have changed during their colonization of Pacific islands
Frietson Galis (Naturalis)
Martin Rückling (Naturalis)
Philip Mitteroecker (University of Vienna, Austria)
Ross MacPhee (AMNH, New York, U.S.)
James Russell (University of Auckland, New Zealand)
Lawrence Heaney (Field Museum, Chicago, U.S.)
Island biodiversity and cultural evolution
Hara Drinia (University of Athens, Greece)
Ross MacPhee (AMNH, New York, U.S.)
Lawrence Heaney (Field Museum, Chicago, U.S.)
Lars van den Hoek Ostende (Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands)
John de Vos (Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands)
Frank Siegmund (University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland)
Body size across space and time
Mark Lomolino (SUNY, New York, U.S.)
Dov Sax (Brown University, Rhode, U.S.)
Maria Rita Palombo (University Roma Tre, Rome, Italy)
George Lyras (University of Athens, Greece)
Roberto Rozzi (University Roma Tre, Rome, Italy)
Evolutie van het paard. Graduate students, veterinary medicine (Utrecht University). Expo Naturalis Leiden, 2016 June 24 & 2014 June 27 & 2013 June 28, 2012 Septembre 6.
Sanskrit for beginners (part-time), 1996-1997, India Institute, Amsterdam.
Unggul Wibowo (Universitas Negeri, Yogyakarta). Insular Stegodons. Ongoing. Co-supervisor.
Jesse Hennekam (research intern, NBC Naturalis). Dental characteristics of Hoplitomeryx. 2014. Advisor.
Miranda Kouvari (University of Athens, Greece). The biogeography of extinction. 2016. Co-supervisor.
Aggeliki Zerri (University of Athens, Greece). The body size of cretan deer and its ecological significance. 2016. Co-supervisor.
- Evolutie op eilanden, Science Talk, LiveScience Naturalis, 2016 June 19th.
- Waarom zijn eilanddieren anders, Spot light, LiveScience, April 2014.
- Drieluik van eilandstudies: verleden, heden en toekomst. Het Natuurhistorisch, Rotterdam, 2014 March 29th.
- Aanpassen: de strijd om het bestaan voor zoogdieren op eilanden. WPZ lecture, Auditorium Naturalis, 2013 December 8th.
- Bestaan lilliputters en reuzen?, MuseumJeugdUniversiteit, September 2013, Naturalis, Leiden
- Spot light, LiveScience, April 2013, Naturalis, Leiden
- Evolutie op Eilanden, Science Talk, LiveScience, April 2012 and July 2012, Naturalis, Leiden
- Perché Sardegna, perché Grotta Corbeddu? (Why Sardinia, why Corbeddu Cave?), Convegno La Grotta Corbeddu: Le nostre origine: popolamenti umani ed evoluzione delle faune pleistoceniche nella valle di Lanaitto, November 2009, Oliena, Sardinia, Italy
- Evolutie op eilanden, Faculteit Diergeneeskunde, April 2000, Utrecht
- De reuzen, dwergen en rariteiten van de Gargano, Werkgroep Pleistocene Zoogdieren, 1998, Natuurmuseum Rotterdam
Articles in Encyclopedias and Popular Articles
- Van der Geer, A.A.E., van den Hoek Ostende, L.W. 2014. De dwergolifant en de rotsmuis van het Vergeten Eiland. Cranium 31 (2).
- Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2011. In total 27 capsules and sidebars of 1,000-1,500 words on Human Evolution and South Asia. In Andrea A.J. (general ed.). World History Encyclopedia (21 vols.). Santa Barbara (CA), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-851-09929-0. Capsules on Human Evolution: Overview: the human family lineage: 8 million years ago to 20,000 years ago; The Late Miocene climate and environments of central, eastern, and southern Africa; Ardipithecus ramidus; The footprints at Laetoli and the significance of walking upright; Australopithecus afarensis; The importance of Hadar: the discovery of “Lucy”; Australopithecus africanus; Swartkrans and the Taung child; The robust australopithecines: aethiopocus, robustus and boisei; Homo erectus in Asia; The odyssey of the Zhoukoudien fossils; Homo antecessor at Atapuerca, Spain; The lifeways of Homo erectus; The adaptive radiation of Homo erectus; What happened to Homo erectus in Asia?; Molecular biology and the “Eve Hypothesis”; and Tool making by our closest primate relatives. Capsules on South Asia: Early popular literature in India; The origin of drama; The Pala dynasty; The Pala School of Art; The export of Pala art; Early medieval South Asian art; The Rajputs, warriors by caste; Rajput origins; Early medieval industries; Gujarat, a centre of commerce.
- Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2010. Dierportretten in steen in Zuid-Azië door de eeuwen heen. Aziatische Kunst 40, 2–16.
- Lyras, G.A., van der Geer, A.A.E. 2007. The late Pliocene vertebrate fauna of Vatera (Lesvos Island, Greece). Cranium 24 (2): 11–24.
- Lyras, G., van der Geer, A. 2006. Adaptations of the Pleistocene island canid Cynotherium sardous (Sardinia, Italy) for hunting small prey. Cranium 23 (1): 51–60.
- Lyras, G., van der Geer, A.A.E., Dermitzakis, M. 2001. Evolution of the brain of Plio/Pleistocene wolves. Cranium 18 (2): 30–40.
- Van der Geer, B., van der Geer, A.A.E. 2001. Dagboek van een opgraving: Corbeddu, zaal IV. Cranium 18 (2): 3–14.
- Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2001. Vondsten uit de krant. Cranium 18 (2): 41–43.
- Van der Geer, A.A.E. 1998. De reuzen, dwergen en rariteiten van de Gargano. Cranium 15 (2): 111–123.
- Van der Geer, A.A.E. 1998. Over hoorns gesproken. Cranium 15 (2): 75–83.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2011. Wilde Beesten Boek. Den Haag, Fairbooks, ISBN 978-91106-02-6.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., A. Athanassios (Eds.). 2011. Program and Abstracts. European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, 9th Annual Meeting, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 14–19 June, 2011.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., G.A. Lyras. 2011. Field trip guidebook. European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, 9th Annual Meeting, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 14–19 June, 2011.
Van der Geer, A., J. de Vos, M. Dermitzakis, G. Lyras. 2010. Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 13-978-1-4051-9009-1.
Van der Geer, A., J. de Vos, M. Dermitzakis, G. Lyras. 2009. Hoe dieren op eilanden evolueren. Wetenschappelijke Bibliotheek 98. Utrecht, Veen Magazines. ISBN 978 908571 169 8.
Van der Geer, A. 2008. Animals in Stone. Indian fauna sculptured through time. Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 2 South Asia, 21. Leiden, Brill. ISBN 978900416 819 0.
Dermitzakis, M.D, S. Roussiakis, A.A.E. van der Geer. 2006. Sto Mouseio – Mosasaurus. Athens, Museum of Palaeontology and Geology.
Van der Geer, A. 1998. The Bhasa Problem. A statistical research into its solution. Leiden, Talen Instituut Console. ISBN 90 75405 09 X.
Van der Geer, A. 1995. Samskrtabhasa B1 and Samskrtabhasa B2. Leiden, Talen Instituut Console. ISBN 90 75405 03 0 and ISBN 90 75405 04 9.
Articles in SCI journals
Van der Geer A.A.E., Lomolino M., Lyras G.A. 2017. On being the right size – do aliens follow the rules. Journal of Biogeography. Accepted manuscript. doi:10.1111/jbi.13159.
Van der Geer A.A.E., Galis F. 2017. High incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene woolly rhinoceroses. PeerJ 5, e3684. doi:10.7717/peerj.3684.
Van den Hoek Ostende, L.W., van der Geer, A.A.E., Wijngaarde, C.L. 2017. Why are there no giants at the dwarf’s feet? Insular micromammals in the eastern Mediterranean. In Mol D. et al. (eds), Proceedings of the VIth International Conference on Mammoths and their Relatives, May 2014, Grevena-Siatista, Greece. Quaternary International 445, 269–279. doi:10.1016/j.quatint.2016.05.007.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Lomolino, M., Lyras, G.A. 2016. Islands before man: the species-area relationship during the late Pleistocene. Journal of Biogeography 44, 995–1006. doi:10.1111/jbi.12857.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., van den Bergh, G., Lyras, G.A., Prasetyo, U.W., Due, R.A., Setiyabudi, E., Drinia, H. 2016. The effect of area and isolation on insular dwarf proboscideans. Journal of Biogeography 43: 1656–1666. doi:10.1111/jbi.12743.
Volmer, R., Hertler, C., van der Geer, A.A.E. 2015. Niche overlap and competition potential among sabre-toothed cats, tigers and Merriam’s dog in the Pleistocene of Java. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 441: 901–911. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.10.039.
Kolb, C., Scheyer, T.M., Veitschegger, K., Forasiepi, A.M., Amson, E., van der Geer, A.A.E., van den Hoek Ostende, L.W., Hayashi, S., Sanchez-Villagra, M.R. 2015. Mammalian bone palaeohistology: a survey and new data with emphasis on island forms. PeerJ . doi:10.7717/peerj.1358.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Anastasakis, G., Lyras, G.A. 2015. If hippopotamuses cannot swim, how did they colonize islands: a reply to Mazza. Leithaia 48: 147–150. doi:10.1111/let.12095.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Lyras, G.A., van den Hoek Ostende, L.W., de Vos, J., Drinia, H. 2014. A dwarf elephant and a rock mouse on Naxos (Cyclades, Greece) with a revision of the palaeozoogeography of the Cycladic Islands during the Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 404: 133–144.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2014. Systematic revision of the family Hoplitomerycidae Leinders, 1984 (Artiodactyla: Cervoidea), with the description of a new genus and four new species. Zootaxa 3847 (1): 1–32.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Lyras, G.A., MacPhee, R.D.E., Lomolino, M., Drinia H. 2014. Mortality in a predator-free insular environment: the extinct dwarf deer from Crete. American Museum Novitates 3807: 1–29.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2014. Parallel patterns and trends in functional structures in island mammals. Integrative Zoology 9: 167–182. doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12066.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Lyras, G.A., Lomolino, M., Palombo M.R. & Sax D. 2013. Body size evolution of palaeo-insular mammals: temporal variations and interspecific interactions. Journal of Biogeography 40: 1440-1450.
Lomolino, M.V., van der Geer, A.A.E., Lyras, G.A., Palombo, M.R., Sax, D. & Rozzi, R. 2013. Of mice and mammoths: generality and antiquity of the island rule. Journal of Biogeography 40: 1427-1439.
Lomolino, M.V., Sax, D.F., Palombo, M.R. & van der Geer, A.A.E. 2012. Of mice and mammoths: evaluations of causal explanations for body size evolution in insular mammals. Journal of Biogeography 39: 842-854.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Lyras, G.A. & van der Geer, S.B. 2011. Letter to the Editor: Microcephaly in ancient Greece, the Minoan microcephalus of Zakros. Child’s Nervous System 27: 1035.
Lyras, G.A., Van der Geer, A. & Rook, L. 2010. Body size of insular carnivores: evidence from the fossil record. Journal of Biogeography 37: 1007-1021.
Hoek Ostende, L.W., Meijer, H.J.M. & Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2009. A bridge too far, reply to “Processes of island colonization by Oligo-Miocene land mammals in the central Mediterranean: New data from Scontrone (Abruzzo, Central Italy) and Gargano (Apulia, Southern Italy)” by Mazza P. and Rustioni M. 2008. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 267, 208-215. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 279: 128-130.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. & Dermitzakis, M. 2008. Dental eruption sequence in the Pliocene Papionini Paradolichopithecus arvernensis (Mammalia: Primates) from Greece. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28: 1238-1244.
Lyras, G.A., Dermitzakis, M.D., Van der Geer, A.A.E., Van der Geer, S.B. & De Vos, J. 2008. The origin of Homo floresiensis and its relation to the evolutionary processes of insularity. Anthropological Science 117: 33-43.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Dermitzakis, M. & De Vos, J. 2008. Fossil Folklore from India: The Siwalik Hills and the Mahabharata. Folkore 119: 71-92.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2008. The effect of insularity on the Eastern Mediterranean early cervoid Hoplitomeryx: the study of the forelimb. Quaternary International 182: 145-159.
Lyras, G.A., Van der Geer, A.A.E., Dermitzakis, M.D. & De Vos, J. 2006. Cynotherium sardous, an insular canid (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Pleistocene of Sardinia (Italy), and its origin. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26: 735-745.
Lyras, G.A. & Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2003. External brain anatomy of the Canidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 138: 505-522.
Articles in other refereed journals
Van der Geer, A.A.E. & Dermitzakis, M. 2008. Fossil medicines from “snake eggs” to “Saint’s bones”; an overview. Calicut Medical Journal 6 (1) (Jan-Mar 2008), e8. Open Access.
Lyras, G. & Van der Geer, A. 2006. Adaptations of the Pleistocene island canid Cynotherium sardous (Sardinia, Italy) for hunting small prey. Cranium 23: 51-60.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., Dermitzakis, M. & De Vos, J. 2006. Crete before the Cretans: the reign of dwarfs. Pharos 13: 121-132.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. & Dermitzakis, M.2006. Relative growth of the metapodals in a juvenile island deer: Candiacervus (Mammalia, Cervidae) from the Pleistocene of Crete. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences 41: 119-125.
Sondaar, P.Y., Van der Geer, A.A.E. & Dermitzakis, M. 2006. The unique postcranial of the Old World monkey Paradolichopithecus: more similar to Australopithecus than to baboons. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences 41: 19-28.
Sondaar, P.Y. & Van der Geer, A.A.E.2002. Plio-Pleistocene terrestrial vertebrate faunal evolution on Mediterranean islands, compared to that of the Palearctic mainland. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 39: 165-180.
Sondaar, P.Y. & Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2002. Arboreal and terrestrial traits as revealed by the primate ankle joint. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 39: 87-98.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. & Sondaar, P.Y. 2002. The postcranial elements of Paradolichopithecus arvernensis (Primates, Cercopithecidae, Papionini) from Lesvos, Greece. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 39: 71-86.
Papers published in Proceedings
Van der Geer, A.A.E., J. de Vos, G. Lyras, M. Dermitzakis. 2006. New data on the Pleistocene Cretan deer Candiacervus sp. II (Mammalia, Cervinae). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 256: 131-137.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2005. Island ruminants and the evolution of parallel functional structures. Quaternair 2005 (hors-serie 2): 231-240.
Sondaar P.Y., A.A.E. van der Geer. 2005. Evolution and Extinction of Plio-Pleistocene Island Ungulates. Quaternair 2005 (hors-serie 2): 241-256.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2005. The postcranial of the deer Hoplitomeryx (Mio-Pliocene; Italy): another example of adaptive radiation on Eastern Mediterranean Islands. Monografies de la Societat d'Historia Natural de les Balears 12: 325-336.
Van der Geer, A.A.E., J. de Vos, G. Lyras, M. Dermitzakis. 2005. The mounting of a skeleton of the fossil species Candiacervus sp. II from Liko Cave, Crete, Greece. Monografies de la Societat d'Historia Natural de les Balears 12: 337-346.
De Vos, J., A.A.E. van der Geer. 2002. Major patterns and processes in biodiversity: taxonomic diversity on islands explained in terms of sympatric speciation. Bar International Series 1095: 395-405.
Sondaar, P.Y., A.A.E. van der Geer. 2000. Mesolithic environment and animal exploitation on Cyprus and Sardinia/Corsica. Archaeozoology of the Near East, ARC Publications 32, vol. IVA: 67-73. Groningen, The Netherlands.
Articles in books
Van der Geer, A.A.E., M. Dermitzakis. 2013. Caves and fossils: Palaeontology in Greek caves and fissures. In: F. Mavridis, J.T. Jensen (eds), Stable Places and Changing Perceptions: Cave Archaeology in Greece and Adjacent Areas: Chapter 3. BAR International Series 2558.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2008. Digging into the Past. In: M.I. Papagrigorakis, K. Dermitzaki, T. Doxanaki, D. Staboliadi (eds), Geological and Palaeontological Heritage: Retrieval, Conservation, Management and Display: 43-48. Athens.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 2008. Corbeddu Cave and its excavations. In: M.R. Palombo, G.L. Pillola, T. Kotsakis (eds), Fossil Mammalian Biotas of Sardinia, Fieldtrip Guide-Book, Sardinina 16–21 September 2008: 68-92.
Dermitzakis, M., A.A.E. van der Geer, G. Lyras. 2006. Palaeopathological observations on a population of fossil deer from the Late Pleistocene of Crete. In: A. Kalofourtis, N. Papadopoulos, C. Spiliopoulou, K. Marabellas, A. Chatzioannou (eds), Volume in Honor of Prof. A.S. Koutselinis: 43-51. Athens. In Greek with English summary.
Van der Geer, A.A.E. 1999. On the astragalus of the Miocene endemic deer Hoplitomeryx from the Gargano (Italy). In: J.W.F. Reumer, J. de Vos J. (eds), Elephants have a snorkel! Papers in honour of Paul Y. Sondaar: 325-336. Deinsea 7.